Common Questions Regarding the Trinity and Trinitarian Relationships

In looking at some of the common terms for the Trinity, a number of questions arise. Going with the section of terms that we just reviewed, there are some common questions the we need to look at and try to provide answers. Some may not like these answer, and I will admit not every answer is thorough and detailed. A 15 page paper could probably be written on each topic and that may still not be enough space. This is just an attempt to provide a brief introduction, some clarity and a high-level overview of these questions. I would encourage each reader to look more closely at each topic.

What Are Primary Biblical Evidences for the Doctrine of the Trinity?

  1. God is One. In the OT, evidence that there is no god before or after the true God nor does He give His glory to another. Monotheism is expressly affirmed. We also see that this divine oneness can be understood as inclusive oneness and does not necessarily confine God to a single person. Two frequent names of God (‘Elohim, ‘Adonai), the use of the personal pronouns (“we”, “us”) and a significant number of passages indicate another person or agent whi is also in some sense God (Isa 9:6, Da 7:13).
  2. The Father is God-both John and Jesus introduced the use of “Father” as normative, yet distinguished “my Father” from “your Father”. God is referred to as the Father to Israel (Ex 4:22), Christ, the Son of God (Mt 3:17; 11:27), and to all believers (Ro 8:14-17; Gal 4:4-7). God the Father is the Creator of life, the Sovereign Ruler over all. Every occurrence happens with God’s knowledge and determination, yet He is also personal with His creation, especially humans. He Is the Holy Judge, whose holiness guides His essence and demands payment for sin. He is the Compassionate Reconciler who sent his Son to be our substitute but calls us to salvation, forgives, justifies, adopts and makes sons of the redeemed
  3. Jesus Christ is God-Jesus was revealed as God, “the Son of God”, the “Logos”—simultaneously the same as, but different from God, most noticeable in John. Jesus’ claims included sharing in the glory of the Father before the world began (Jn 17:5), possessing authority to send the Holy Spirit (Jn 15:26) and being destined not only to save the world but to judge it. Jesus is specifically ascribed as “God” (Ac 20:28, Ro 9:5, Tit 1:3) along with other titles of divinity including “Immanuel” (My 1:23), “Mighty God” (Isa 9:6) and Alpha and Omega (Rev 22:13).
  4. The Holy Spirit is God-the Spirit is frequently revealed with the characteristics of a person not only in relationship to belieers but also to God himself. The Holy Spirit is identified as God in specific texts (Ac 5:3-4, 2 Co 3:17-18). As “another Counselor (Jn 14:16), the Spirit stands as one together with the Son. Sent forth by the Father and the Son, the Holy Spirit searches out the mind of God (I Co 2:10), speaks to what he hears (Jn 16:13), intercedes to the Father in our behalf (Ro 8:26), glorifies the Son (Jn 16:14) and resides in believers, the temples of God (I Co 2:16, 6:19) and children of God (Ro 8:15). The Holy Spirit is God in the same personal sense as the Son and the Father

Why in the Incarnation Did the Son not Absolutely, Publically Prove He Is God?-Christ’s divine nature was not always suppressed during His public ministry.The Savior’s sonship and innate authority were often the point of His teaching and miracles. His submission to the Father and anointing by the Spirit do not negate the active operation of His divine nature. He sometimes acted as God, even Lord of the Spirit. There is every bit enough evidence to confirm that Jesus is indeed God, yet we are not bludgeoned by the truth. He reveals himself to whom he chooses. Jesus could not only quite ably reveal his deity but he could also conceal it. Philippians 2:5–7 instructs believers to assume the same attitude as Christ who, although he was God did not go about flaunting or “grasping” at his deity. He drew people to himself in such a manner that they began to question the very nature of his being. Jesus Christ’s most forceful witness of his own deity was, remarkably, indirect. If Jesus had loudly, indisputably proved he was God (as skeptics seem to require), could the response have been the heart-changing submission that God desires? on at least four occasions Jesus seems explicitly to state his own deity. In each of the three instances prior to his crucifixion, Jesus attests his deity to those who already angrily rejected him.

Is Mary the Mother of God? Why should we not pray to Mary? The term “Mother of God” originated in the 4-5th Century, intended to denote the full deity of Christ. This term was not meant to indicate that Mary was the mother of Christ’s divine nature, but that Jesus was a singular person, “the perfect [pre-] existent God became perfect man, made flesh of the Virgin”. Mary is the physical mother of God, not the source or origin of His deity. There is very little biblical evidence to suggest that Mary herself would have been a deity or someone to be worshipped (she was not free from sin, nor does the Bible indicate her deity). A common criticism is that Mariology is a form of heresy-a rejection of the authority of the Bible for more popular traditions and it is a result of the pervasive influence of Gnosticism. Some more criticisms include Mariology is viewed as Paganism and included the need for the worship of a female god; lastly in anthropocentrism, where the human desire to create our own religion is demonstrated. Praying to Mary detracts from the glory of Christ, substituting the Son of God with others and negating the total sufficiency of Christ’s death on the cross, His role as our Intercessor, and His ability to sustain and provide all of our needs. We have fulfillment in Him and He asks us to talk to the Father in His name.

Description of the IntraTrinitarian Relationships in the NT.

  1. Persons as Distinct Centers of Consciousness-the NT records the Father, Son and the Holy Spirit each speaking as the divine “I” (Mk 1:11; Jn 10:30; Ac 13:2).
  2. Genuinely Personal Relationships-John’s commentary declare that the Son and the Spirit were with God; multiple references display “seeing”, “hearing”, and “being taught” among each member of the Trinity to convey the personeity of each divine member and the intimate relationship each enjoys with the other.
  3. They Know and Testify of Each Other- Interpersonally, the Father knows the Son (Jn 10:15) and the Son knows the Father; the knowledge Jesus has of God is based on relation. The Spirit also profoundly knows the Father and is known by the Father (1 Co 2:11-13, 2 Co 3:3; Ep 2:18) just as the Spirit knows the Son and is known by the Son (Jn 14:26, 15:26, 16:14-15). Because each of the divine persons has eternal, infinitely deep knowledge of the other, the Father testifies of the Son, the Son of the Father and the Spirit of the truth that is in the Father and the Son. As the Spirit alights upon the Son to testify of him at his baptism, so it is the Son who presents the Spirit, testifies of his coming and with the Father sends and gives the Spirit.
  4. Free Personal Choice-John’s Gospel demonstrates that the Father, Son and Spirit can and do operate freely but freely in submission; each is seen as a unique person, yet certain expressions reflect distinct separate consciousness. Every member of the Godhead is seen in free acts of self-giving; the functional order of the Godhead is never violated yet concurrently their relationship is intense and passionate.
  5. The Glory of Self-Rendering Love-John speaks of an innate glory of both the Father and the Son, the lovely reality is that the Father delights in glorifying the Son, the Son delights in glorifying the Father and the Spirit delights in glorifying the Son and thereby the Father. Each member of the Trinity honors each other-the entire Gospel repetitiously shapes and hammers an extraordinary sculpture of the immense love between each member of the Trinity.
  6. Each Mutually Indwells the Other-each member is distinct person that share divine nature as one God (perichoresis), yet they indwell each other. John 14:20 refers to the Father being in the Son and the Son in the Father, and implicitly, the Spirit was in Jesus
  7. The Come Forth from the Father-the Bible displays an eternal order of function within the Trinity. The Father is the fons divinatatis, the divine fountainhead and two of the most repeated phrases in John’s Gospel are that the Son comes/came from the Father and is sent by/from the Father. The Spirit of truth comes (Jn 15:26; 6:7-8, 13) and most significantly is describes as one who “goes forth” or “proceeds” from the Father.

Was the Earliest Church Trinitarian? Why or Why Not?

The greatest difficulty of the early church was to understand the declarations of Jesus’ deity coupled with those of his humanity. If he is God, then in what sense is he human? The early church did not waver from belief that God is one. Yet believers were also experiencing God in a threefold way. The earliest records of the second century reveal an underdeveloped Christology, yet one generally in concurrence with what later was later clarified with the Ecumenical Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon. Docetism, Ebionism, Monarchianism.


Continuation of Terms Regarding Christ and the Spirit

Today, we continue our series of Trinitarian terms that pertain mainly to the deity of the Holy Spirit and Jesus Christ. There are several concepts like Hypostatic union and Kenosis that will be further examined in upcoming posts.

Hypostatic Union, Two Natures of Christ, Relationship between Them-Importance for Salvation (see also Chalcedonian Creed)-The Hypostatic Union is the union between the deity and the humanity of Christ. In His deity, He is all that the Father is, He is the Son of God and possesses a divine nature. Christ’s divine nature was not always suppressed during His public ministry. The Savior’s Sonship and innate authority were often the point of His teaching and miracles. His submission to the Father and anointing by the Spirit do not negate the active operation of His divine nature. He sometimes acted as God, even Lord of the Spirit. In His humanity, he is born of a human, a perfect man, and possesses a human nature. Christ’s deity does not impede the reality of His humanity: His growth from infancy to maturity, His human temptation (not from sin within), His perfection through trials and suffering to become our High Priest.

Immaculate Conception-a term used of Mary, suggesting that she was free from conscious sin (there was no deliberate act of rebellion against God in her life). The conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in her mother’s womb free from original sin by virtue of the foreseen merits of her son Jesus Christ.

Jesus Christ: Biblical Basis of Deity and Humanity-Deity: Christ’s divine nature was not always suppressed during His public ministry; the Savior’s Sonship and innate authority were often the point of His teaching and miracles. His submission to the Father and anointing by the Spirit does not negate the active operation of His divine nature, Joh 5:21-22. Humanity: Christ’s deity does not impede the reality of His humanity: his growth from infancy to maturity, His human temptations (not from within), His perfection through trials and suffering to become our High Priest, Heb 4:14-15

Kenosis-literally the self-emptying act of the Son of God in assuming human nature as found in Phil 2. Jesus emptied Himself of the rights, the prerogatives of being God were left behind, He does not assumed kingship, and taking on the servant role. See also the doctrinal statement for a longer discussion and argument on this from J.I. Packer.

7 Keys of Christological Orthodoxy – 1. Pre-Existence, 2. Virgin Birth, 3. Consciousness of Divine Sonship, 4. Literal Miracles, 5. Foreknowledge of Expiatory Death, 6. Bodily Resurrection, 7. Physical Return to Earth

Modern Christologies: Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834), asserted that Jesus is our human example, He fully opened himself to God, Jesus had a divine consciousness not an eternal divine nature; known as the Father of Modern Theology, feeling became the center of Christian confession. Adolf von Harnack (1851-1930), asserted the Fatherhood of God that the human soul can be so ennobled as to unite with God, that Jesus’ gospel is about the Father not the Son; asserted that Jesus preached the kingdom of God, not Himself, and he preached the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of mankind. Karl Barth (1886-1968), asserted that Christology is the center of everything, the risen Christ of faith, no the historical Jesus is central, that the Word is Christ, Scripture, kerygma, encounter; asserted the resurrected Christ is the essence of the Christian faith. He proclaimed a “Christ of faith”. Rudolf Bultmann (1884-1976), asserted extreme NT criticism, Jesus’ person and works finally unknowable, demythologization, when we die to self we experience existential resurrection; denied the Trinity and Deity of Christ.

Nestorianism-form of Christianity that continues today in Asia; asserts that sometimes Jesus Christ is acting as God, other times as humanity, but there is not adequate unity of the two in the one personal consciousness of our Lord.

Old Testament Evidences of the Trinity, One God yet Plural Agencies-God is One, ‘Ehad-“one”, “to be united”, primary texts include Dt 4:39, 6:4, Isa 42:8. God says “we” in Gen 1:26-27, plural terms for God include ‘Elohim’ and ‘Adonai’. Triadic patterns in the OT hint to a greater revelation in Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit in creation (ge 1:1-3, Pr 30:5-6), the Trisagion (“Holy, holy, holy”, Isa 6:3) or more generally in the tri-dimensional activity of God in the transcendent Other yet visibly made present in theophany, Shekinah, and in the immanent and activity of the Spirit (Ps 139:7). See also Isa 48:12-16, various translations include verse 16b as continuing the divine monologue as Yahweh speaks yet distinguishes himself from himself as the Sent One together with the Spirit. See also Isa 63:8-16, The Lord himself becomes the Savior and Redeem of Israel though the “angel of his presence” and full ascription “Holy Spirit” is found. See also Zech 12:10 Yahweh seems to refer to himself in the first and third person; God likens himself to an only son and a firstborn over whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem will weep bitterly, can be directly applied to Christ.

Parakletos-an attribute used to describe Jesus Christ as our Intercessor and the Holy Spirit as “the Counselor” or helper.

Perichoresis-“the dance around” as each member of the Godhead; there is a sense in which each member of the Godhead penetrates, has a reciprocal indwelling, each in the other.

Son as God, Relation to Father and Spirit-Jesus’ words and John’s commentary declare that the Son and the Spirit were with God (Jn 1:32, 15:26, 16:7). Jesus is said to have seen and to see the Father (Jn 1:18, 3:11, 32; 5:19, 29, 37; 6:46; 8:38) and to speak what he hears the Father declare (3:32, 34; 5:30, 37; 7:17; 12:49-50; 14:10). The Spirit also speaks and tells what he hears or receives of the Son (16:13-15). The father shows the Son all that he is doing (5:20); what the Father does, the Son does (5:19; 6:38). Interpersonally, the Father knows the Son (Jn 10:15) and the Son knows the Father; the knowledge Jesus has of God is based on relation. They Know and Testify of Each Other- Interpersonally, the Father knows the Son (Jn 10:15) and the Son knows the Father; the knowledge Jesus has of God is based on relation. The Spirit knows the Son and is known by the Son (Jn 14:26, 15:26, 16:14-15). Because each of the divine persons has eternal, infinitely deep knowledge of the other, the Father testifies of the Son, the Son of the Father and the Spirit of the truth that is in the Father and the Son. As the Spirit alights upon the Son to testify of him at his baptism, so it is the Son who presents the Spirit, testifies of his coming and with the Father, sends and gives the Spirit.

Theotokos: Appropriateness for Evangelicals-a term ascribed to Mary as literally, “the bearer of God”, or “mother of God”. Does not mean that Mary was mother of Christ’s divine nature, but mother of His human nature. Appropriate to the extent that it mentioned this is only to human nature, i.e. this term does not mean that Mary was a deity.

Terms and Concepts Regarding the Deity of Christ and the Spirit

Over the next few posts, we are going to examine a few more terms on some key concepts and beliefs. This time, the series will focus mainly on Christ, His deity, and the deity of the Holy Spirit. As we go through this, you will begin to see how divisions were forming as different groups/leaders had different beliefs about Christ and the Spirit.

This is a very high level look at some key ideas and is in no way comprehensive. This will hopefully continue to build a foundation of Christian thought and why some decisions and now traditions are present. After this short series, there are several key ideas that we will need to look at in further detail that will hopefully provide greater clarity on the decisions of the church and the church fathers. For now, let us look at some key concepts about Christ and the Holy Spirit.

Angel of Yahweh-a designated angel bringing the message of God; the angel of the Lord, many times is one who seems to bring very direct revelation and speaks as though he is God; denotes a special angel delegated with direct divine authority, hence speaking and acting as God within specific tasks and at times the angel is more than a designated representative—he is one with and yet distinct from God. Gen 16:17, 18-19; Ex 3:2-15; Zech 3:1-7; seems to speak direct revelation, every other angel refuses personal worship, possible Christophany

Apollinarianism-Apollinarius taught that Jesus (or the Son of God, the Logos) came down and inherited, took upon Himself a human body. He was God on the inside and human on the outside: God as to His higher soul, His rational mind and will; and man in terms of His lower soul, His emotions, His appetites, and His bodily functions. Apollinarianism was early written off as heresy of the church  Apollinarius was adamant that Christ had but one active principle (rational nature) – the divine Logos. Such a doctrine negated any possible initiative from the humanity of the Lord

Arianism-Arius would say that God the Father, the theta up above, and then you have Christ as the highest of all creation that created everything else but is Himself creature, as Arius taught. “There was a time when Christ was not.”

Chalcedonian Creed (Definitio Fidei)-…the Same of a rational soul and a body; of the same nature (homoousios) with the Father as to his Godhead, and the Same nature (homoousios) with us as to his manhood…. The edict of the 4th Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon (451) generally accepted in the East and West that affirms the divine and human natures of Christ are united in his single person (hypostasis), thus in hypostatic union. It stands as the definitive statement of Christology against both exaggerated separateness of natures (Nestorianism) and exaggerated commingling of natures (Eutychianism).

’Ehad-a Hebrew term, refers to that the Lord God is the one God particularly of Israel. Not other gods, but Yahweh is our God. The other nations may have their gods, but we have but one, the Lord God. “One” in Hebrew, a composite oneness

Enhypostasis and AnhypostasisEnhypostasis: that the human nature of Christ was both created by the Spirit and sustained by the divine nature; literally, that the human nature is sustained by the divine nature. Anhypostasis: that the human nature would not exist without the divine nature

Eternal Generation and Procession: Biblical Evidence, Importance-a controversial view largely held by the Eastern Orthodoxy church where in the Father has priority, not in time but in ontology to the Son and the Spirit. Applied to the Father, fons totius divinitatis, denotes the Father as the ground and the source of the eternal generation of the Son and the eternal procession of the Holy Spirit. This means that there was never a time in which the Son and the Spirit were not completely God, and therefore, equal to God the Father. But they come forth from the Father, yet always the Son and the Spirit have their very being from the Father – yet in such a generous way that they have it equally

Eutychianism-Eutyches emphasized the unity of the two natures, but began to confuse them so that the divine became human; that is the divine absorbed human realities and human absorbed divine realities. Eutyches stressed the unity of Christ that, if he did allow two natures, they were so intermingled as to be indistinguishable

Father God, Characteristics and Place-He is the Sovereign Ruler (1), the absolute Other-there is nothing above or behind Him, all things come forth from the Father and all things return to the Father (2), the Creator and Originator of everything, including human life (3), He is the holy Judge, the Father is the moral Absolute of all existence (4), Compassionate Reconciler (5), the One to whom all things return (6)  He is the Divine Source, Sovereign Ruler, Lord Chief Justice, Loving Reconciler, Him to Whom All Things Return, God as the Father of the Son .

Firstborn (Prototokos)-can mean “the first one born in a family”; primary meaning in Hebrew Semitic society and even Greco-Roman society was “one who was chief heir”, the one who received double portion of all the rest. The one who is the favored inheritor of that of the Father. Prototokos has several meanings, often with the dominant notion of supremacy or priority of rank. Col 1:15-16 the Son is described as the creator of everything ever created

Fons Totius Divinitasa characteristic of God the Father, denotes the Father as the ground and the source of the eternal generation of the Son and the eternal procession of the Holy Spirit

Holy Spirit: Biblical Evidence for Personhood and Deity-Personhood: the Savior speaks of the Holy Spirit as the Comforter, Counselor Advocate, one who loves you and is at your side to defend you. I Cor 2:8-13, Paul likens the Holy Spirit to our own human spirit. The Spirit manifests emotions, Eph 4:30, Rom 8:15-16. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit as one of the strongest arguments for the personal reality of the Holy Spirit, Matt 12:31-32. The Holy Spirit comforts, helps, guides. Deity: the Spirit is doing things, in His own will—not separate from the Father and the Son, in conjunction with them, but distinct from them in terms of acting as Himself. Gordon Fee puts it, “The Spirit literally is the personal presence of God sent into our hearts and into the church”. 2 Cor 3:17-18 emphasizes identification with Christ or with the Father—God

Final Doctrinal Statement on God

Recently, I posted a few blog posts on a synthetic definition of God that included a doctrinal belief on the trinity, God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Spirit (Holy Spirit). After posting that, I realized there was a couple of items that were left out that I wanted to include. Instead of posting very similar posts all over again, I thought it best just to publish the whole doctrinal statement (aka synthetic definition) on God. The changes are minimal but will hopefully add a little more definition and clarity on the different Persons of the Trinity.


I believe in the Holy Trinity. I believe in one true God, that eternally exists as three Persons –Father, Son and Holy Spirit – and that these three are one God.[1] I believe that God is one in essence, three in Person each fully God and equally God each equal in nature, attributes and glory, and worthy of worship and obedience.[2] I believe the three Persons of the Trinity to be God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit.[3] I believe that none is greater or less than the other but all equal and united.[4] I believe that the primary names[5] of God are Adonai[6], Elohim[7] and Yahweh[8] as revealed in the inspired Scriptures for His creation to call Him.[9] I believe that the Triune God is perfect[10], immutable[11], eternal[12], omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent.[13] In God being very God, He is true, holy, just, good, faithful, loving, merciful and gracious.[14] God is beyond all human comprehension.[15]

I believe in one God, the Father[16], the all-powerful Lord and Master, the Glorious and Majestic God of all. I believe that God is the Creator and Maker of heaven and earth, and all that is seen and unseen.[17] He is the only God, the Creator and Sustainer, the Most High One, the Lord.[18] The Father is completely self-existent, self-sufficient and free.[19] I believe the Father is the Divine Source[20], Sovereign Ruler[21], Lord Chief Justice[22], Compassionate Reconciler[23], Him to Whom All Things Return[24], and the Father of the Son.[25]

I believe in the One and Only Son of God, Jesus Christ our Lord, eternally begotten of God the Father, being God from God and of the same Being as the Father, not created.[26] I believe that through Him all things were created and are sustained.[27] I believe that Jesus Christ, born of the Virgin Mary through the power of the Holy Spirit, became incarnate[28] and received a sinless human nature.[29] I believe that He was at the same time truly God[30] and truly man[31], being at once in two natures fully human and fully God with the essences of each being preserved.[32] I believe that the eternal Son of God came into this world fulfilling Scriptures that He might manifest God and redeem fallen humanity as a ransom for all.[33] I believe that Jesus Christ is the Savior and Sacrificial Lamb that atoned the sin of the world saving all those who believe in Him from the righteous judgments that God must execute to satisfy His wrath.[34] I believe Jesus was crucified, dead and buried and on third day rose from the grave in accordance with Scripture; He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of God the Father.[35] I believe that He is the Christians’ Mediator to God and will come again to judge all mankind.[36]

I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, and that He is of God the Father and of the Son; neither made, nor created, nor begotten, but proceeding.[37] I believe that He is to be worshiped and glorified just as the Father and Son.[38] I believe that He is the promised Counselor indwelling every believer according to the divine promise and by His baptism unites all to Christ in one body.[39] I believe the Holy Spirit is a divine Person evidenced by His intelligence, volition, and emotions;[40] yet functions as the personal presence of God in the world.[41] He spoke through the prophets to produce the inspired Scriptures.[42] I believe the Spirit is active in the world today helping unbelievers come to know Christ, empowering the church, and leading believers into holiness to exemplify Christ.[43] I believe that that blasphemy of the Holy Spirit is an unforgiveable sin.[44]

[1] J.I. Packer, Knowing God, (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1973), 20. “…[S]ince ‘God is spirit,’ ‘Holy Spirit’ can be predicated of the whole Trinity; the Father and Son both being ‘spirit,’ and both ‘holy’… But the Holy Spirit, as a proper name in the Trinity, is relative to the Father and the Son, since the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of the Father and the Son.” – Augustine, De Trinitate 5.12, in Henry Bettenson, ed., The Later Christian Fathers: A Selection from the Writings of the Fathers from St. Cyril of Jerusalem to St. Leo the Great, trans. H. Bettenson (London: Oxford Univ. 1970) 231. Deut 6:4-5; Matt 28:18-19; Mark 12:29; John 14:6-17; Acts 5:3-4; 2 Cor 13:14; Col 1:13-19.

[2] Athanasian Creed lines 3-20. The Creed speaks to the Father, the Son and the Spirit each uncreated, incomprehensible, eternal, almighty; yet they are not three “almighties,” “eternals,” “uncreateds” and “incomprehensibles” but one. Each is God and Lord. “It is most important that we think of God as Trinity in Unity, neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance.” – cf A.W. Tozer, Knowledge of the Holy, (New York: HarperOne, 1961), 20. “Within God’s one, undivided being is an ‘unfolding’ into three personal distinctions. These personal distinctions are modes of existence within the divine being, but are not divisions of the divine being.” – cf Matt Perman, “What is the Doctrine of the Trinity,”, Jan 23, 2006 (accessed Oct 8, 2014). Also see Dallas Theological Seminary Article II from Doctrinal Statements, John 1:14; 2 Cor 13:14; Heb 1:1-3; Rev 1:4-6.

[3] Athanasian Creed lines 3-20.  Matt 28:19; John 15:26; 1 Cor 8:6.

[4] Athanasian Creed lines 25, 27. “The Persons of the Godhead… have one will. They work always together…. Every act of God is accomplished by the Trinity in Unity…. It is a real if understandable error to conceive of the… [Trinity] as conferring with one another and reaching agreement by interchange of though as humans do.” – cf A.W. Tozer, Knowledge of the Holy, 22. “When we speak of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit together we are not speaking of any greater being than when we speak of the Father alone, the Son alone, or the Holy Spirit alone.” And “the being of each Person is equal to the whole being of God.” – cf Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology, (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1994), 255.

[5] God is called by many names but these are the most predominant names that are found in Scripture. Other names include: ALL POWERFUL (2 Cor 6:18; Rev 1:8; 4:8; 11:17); ANCIENT OF DAYS (Dan 7:9); FATHER (Rom 1:7; 8:15; Gal 4:6; James 1:27; 1 Pet 1:3); HOLY ONE, MOST HOLY (Isa 1:4; 6:3, Rev 16:5); JUDGE OF ALL THE EARTH (Gen 18:25); MASTER, LORD, SOVEREIGN LORD (Luke 2:29; Jude 1:4); KING/MY KING (Ps 5:2; 44:4; 1Tim 6:15); MY LORD, MY HUSBAND (Hos 2:16); ROCK OF ISRAEL (Gen 49:24); SHEPHERD, MY SHEPHERD (Gen 48:15; Ps 23:1).

[6] Adonai literally means “my lords, or master, lord, Lord.” It is found 425 times and is used exclusively of the true God, often together with Yahweh (310 times, 2 Sam 7:18). – cf Dr. J. Scott Horrell, Chapter 1 God’s Names and Attributes, ST102 unpublished class notes, DTS, 2. Gen 15:2; 18:3; Ps 35:23; 110:1.

[7] Elohim literally means “powerful ones or God, gods or most high ones.” It is found 2,602 times in the OT and describes God as Creator-Sustainer of the universe, usually translated as “God” in the NT. Typically, it stands in direct relation to Yahweh and Adonai (Deut 10:7) – cf Dr. J. Scott Horrell, Chapter 1 God’s Names and Attributes, ST102 unpublished class notes, DTS, 1. Gen 1:1; Ex 20:2-3.

[8] Yahweh (or YHWH) means “LORD, I AM; Jehovah.” It is probably from the verb “to be,” and found 6,828 times in the Old Testament. Generally it is God’s personal name in covenant with His creation (Gen 2:4) and His people, especially Israel (Ex 3:13-15). In the New Testament, it is typically translated Lord, related to “I AM” in Ex 3:13-15, see John 8:58 – cf cf Dr. J. Scott Horrell, Chapter 1 God’s Names and Attributes, ST102 unpublished class notes, DTS, 2. Gen 9:26; 12:8; 15:2,8; Ex 3:14; Is 16:4.

[9] Ex 3:13-15; Jdg 13:17-18; Gen 2:4. Other sources for the doctrine of the Trinity include acts of God in history such as the resurrection, the apostolic and Christian tradition such as the Nicene Creed, and the threefold experience of the Christian God. While God has progressively revealed Himself to creation, the Bible is the foundational source for the doctrine of the Trinity and God’s revelation about Himself. The importance of God’s name is: they reveal His Person (Ex 3:13-15; Jdg 13:17-18), represent Him (Ps 8:1; 75:1) and are therefore sacred (Ex 20:7; Matt 6:9).

[10] God is the definition of the measure or standard of all that is right, excellent, worthy and complete. Deut 32:4, Hab 1:13; Ps 18:30; Matt 5:48; 1 Tim 4:4.

[11] God never differs from Himself. “God cannot change for the better. Since He is perfectly holy, He has never been less holy than He is now and can never be holier than He is and has always been. Neither can God change for the worse. Any deterioration within the unspeakably holy nature of God is impossible…. All that God is He has always been, and all that He has been and is He will ever be.” Any attempt to think of God as changing, that object is no longer God and becomes something less than He is. A.W. Tozer, The Knowledge of the Holy, 49-50. Ps 102:27; Mal 3:6.

[12] God exists infinitely before when time began, everlasting (in time) but also stands outside of time.

[13] Incommunicable attributes of God. “God is at once far off and near, and that in Him men move and live and have their being….There is no limit to His presence…He surrounds the finite creation and contains it. There is no place beyond Him for anything to be.” – cf A.W. Tozer, The Knowledge of the Holy, 74. God is both transcendent (beyond and outside of creation; 1 Kings 8:27; Isa 40:12-28) and immanent (God is everywhere sustaining creation but is not creation itself; Jer 23:23; Col 1:16-17; Heb 1:3).

[14] Communicable attributes of God. True: Job 9:4; Ps 33:10-11; John 17:3; Rom 11:33. Holy: Lev 19:2, 21:8; Ps 24:3, 99:3. Good: Ps 25:8, 34:8. Faithful: Deut 7:9; Ps 25:10. Loving: John 17:24; Rom 5:8; 1 John 4:8, Merciful: 2 Sam 24:14; Ps 86:16; Luke 1:78. Gracious: Ex 34:6; Ps 103:8; Eph 2:4-5.

[15] Athanasian Creed, line 9. “The intellect knoweth that it is ignorant of Thee because it knoweth Thou canst not be known, unless the unknowable could be known, and the invisible beheld and the inaccessible attained.” – cf Nicholas of Cusa, The Vision of God (New York: E.P. Dutton & Sons, 1928) 60. Job 36:26; Ps 139:6; Rom 11:33.

[16] Deut 32:6; 2 Sam 7:14; Ps 68:5; Jn 6:27, Rom 1:7, Eph 4:6. “[T]he term God or theos generally denotes the person of the Father, with only a few important exceptions.” Dr. J. Scott Horrell, Chapter 3 God the Father who Draws Near, ST102 class notes, DTS, 7. “Everything that Christ taught… is summed up in the knowledge of the Fatherhood of God. ‘Father’ is the Christian name for God.” J.I. Packer, Knowing God, 224.

[17] Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed.

[18] God reveals His name most frequently as Yahweh (LORD, I AM), Elohim (powerful ones or God, gods), and Adonai (Lord, master).

[19] God does not originate from or depend on anything outside of Himself. He sustains all things and is necessarily self-existent. Job 41:11; Acts 17:24-25; Rom 11:35-36.

[20] Acts 17:24-25, 28; Eph 1:11, 4:6; Rev 4:11.

[21] Deut 10:14, 17; 1 Chron 29:11-12; Matt 11:25; 1 Tim 6:15.

[22] Gen 18:25; Ex 12:12; Lev 18:4; Luke 23:34; John 8:15-16.

[23] John 3:16; Acts 14:15-17; 1 John 4:8, 16; 2 Cor 5:18-19.

[24] 1 Cor 15:24-28; Col 1:20; Rev 1:8, 21:22, 22:13.

[25] To explain the doctrine of the Trinity more fully, a distinction between essence and persons is helpful. It is helpful to remember that each member of the Trinity is present in every act of God, either in a primary or a secondary role. The one divine essence includes attributes that are equally shared by each member of the Godhead, but these six roles are predominantly ascribed to the Father. Other roles and activities of the Father include: God as husband and Judah/Israel as wife (Hos 2:2-16; Jer 3:1-14); the potter with human beings as the clay (Isa 45:9-10; Rom 9:21-24); the good Shepherd of the sheep (Ps 23; John 10:11-16); and the Vinedresser, with Jesus as the vine, and the believers the branches (John 15:1-8) – cf Dr. J. Scott Horrell, Chapter 3 God the Father who Draws Near, ST102 class notes, DTS, 13. In reference to God as the Father of the Son, see: Luke 23:24; John 3:16, 8:15-16, 17:5, 24.

[26] Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, John 1:1-18; John 10:30. Jesus states that He has every right to the claim of oneness with the God because the Father has sent him into the world (10:36) and “the Father is in me and I am in the Father” (10:38). Also, “If the Word [Jesus] were a created being, then he would have had to create himself for any and all creation came into existence through him: ‘without him was not any thing made that was made’ (1 Cor. 8:6; Col. 1:16; Heb. 1:2)” – cf Dr. J. Scott Horrell, Chapter 4: God Made Flesh, ST102OL Class Notes, DTS, 11.

[27] One role of Jesus Christ was His involvement in creation. Col 1:16-17 summarizes that Christ is the creator, sustainer, and the purpose of all created existence. John 1:3, “Through him all things were made.” “He was the Father’s agent in every act of making that the Father has ever performed.” – cf J.I. Packer, Knowing God, 56. “In him was life…” (John 1:4) speaks of Jesus animating, that is all things exist in and through Him, or are sustained in him.

[28] Incarnate means to become flesh. This is God himself becoming human as Jesus entered physically into the world and became human like us. It is only God who could pay for our sins, therefore God the Son became man to provide atonement for mankind’s sins. “He [Jesus] had not ceased to be God; he was no less God than before; but he had begun to be man. He was not now God minus some elements of his deity, but God plus all that he had made his own by taking manhood to himself” J.I. Packer, Knowing God, 57. Heb 2:17; John 1:1, 14; 1 Pet 2:24.

[29] Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, Luke 1:30-35; Luke 2:40; John 1:18; Phil 2:5-8.

[30] Phil 2:6-7: “who though he was in the form of God… made himself nothing, taking the form of a servant” (Italics mine). Of special note is the term “form” (morphē) which “denotes outward appearance that reveals an inward reality…. The ‘morphē of God’ denotes the heavenly glory… that reveals Christ’s innate deity.” – cf Dr. J. Scott Horrell, Chapter 4: God Made Flesh, ST102OL Class Notes, 17. Douglas McCready states, the only one who can enjoy the status of God is God Himself.” – cf Douglas McCready, He Came Down from Heaven: The Preexistence of Christ and the Christian Faith (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2005), 77.

[31] A major argument is also found in Phil 2:7 over the term “emptied” (himself), which the theological term kenosis (the “self-emptying” of Christ) is derived. Some have argued that because Christ “did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped,” then He could not have been God. Instead this shows the example of Jesus that because He was “in the form of God” and already existed as God, He “made himself nothing,” becoming a humble human. Kenosis says that “in order to be fully human, the Son had to renounce some of his divine qualities, otherwise he could not have shared the experience of being limited in space, time, knowledge and consciousness which is essential to truly human life.” J.I. Packer, Knowing God, 59. Packer argues why this theory is wrong by showing that when Paul spoke of the Son having emptied himself and became poor, it was not about Jesus laying aside his divine powers and attributes but of his divine glory and dignity citing John 17:5, “the glory I had with you before the world began.” Packer states that there “is no Scripture support for the idea of the Son’s shedding any aspects of his deity” (60). Regarding the controversial text of Mark 13:32 where Jesus says He does not know the time of His return, Packer insists that Jesus lived not as an independently divine person, but as a dependent one. While Jesus was on earth it was not a new relationship with the Father occasioned by the Incarnation, “but the continuation in time of the eternal relationship between the Son and Father in heaven…. The Son was utterly dependent on the Father’s will…. His knowing, like the rest of his activity, was bounded by his Father’s will. And therefore the reason why he was ignorant of (for instance) the date of his return was not that he had given up the power to know all things at the Incarnation, but that the Father had not willed that he should have this particular piece of knowledge while on earth, prior to his passion” (62). Matt 28:18, 20; John 21:17; Eph 4:10.

[32] Chalcedonian Definition states, “the Same perfect in Godhead, the Same perfect in manhood, truly God and truly man, the Same [consisting] of a rational soul and a body; one essence [homoousios] with the Father as to his Godhead, and one essence [homoousios] with us as to his manhood; in all things like unto us, sin only excepted…. One and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, made known in two natures [which exist] without confusion, without change, without division, without separation; the difference of the natures having been in no wise taken away by reason of the union, but rather the properties of each being preserved, and [both] concurring into one Person (prosopon) and one hypostasis— not parted or divided into two Persons (prosopa), but one and the same Son and Only-begotten….” The hypostatic (meaning personal) union is the personal union of Jesus’ two natures. This doctrine of the hypostatic union teaches that these two natures are united in one person. Jesus is not two persons, but one. It is the joining of the divine and the human in the one person of Jesus. This means that Jesus is not half God and half man. He is fully and completely God and man. He never lost His divinity. Athanasian Creed formulates it as, “Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and man… perfect God, and perfect man…who, although He is God and man, yet He is not two, but one Christ; one, not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh, but by taking of that manhood into God.” Col 2:9; Heb 1:3. For more on hypostatic union see J.I. Packer, Knowing God; Matt Perman, “How can Jesus be God and Man,”, October 5, 2006 (accessed October 8, 2014).

[33] John 3:16; Phil 3:20-21.

[34] John 1:29; Rom 3:25-26; 2 Cor 5:14; 1 Pet 3:18

[35] Acts 2:22-24; 1 Tim 2:6; John 20:20.

[36] Athanasian Creed, line 40. Apostles Creed, line 7. Jesus as Mediator: 2 Cor 5:21; 1 Tim 2:5; Heb 9:15.

[37] Athanasian Creed. The Spirit is found active in creation, bring life to the universe (Gen 1:2; 2:7; Job 33:4; Ps 33:6, 104:30). The Holy Spirit has been referred to as such in Ps 51:11 and Isaiah 63:10-11. Similar to the Hebrew word ruah, pneuma in the Greek describes the Spirit as “the Spirit of God” or “Spirit of the Father,” or “Son.” – cf F.W. Horn, “Holy Spirit,” Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed David Noel Freedman, 6 vols, (New York: Doubleday, 1992) 3:265. The clearest evidence of the Holy Spirit’s divinity comes from the baptismal formula of Matt 28:19, “in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.” Also see John 15:26 (“the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father” KJV); 2 Cor 3:17-18. Counselor: John 14:16, 16:7. Also called Advocate and Comforter (John 14:26).

[38] Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed. All the divine attributes that God has, the Spirit has (Isa: 40:13,14; 1 Cor 2:10-13; Ps 139:7-9; Heb 10:29; 1 Pet 4:14); and likewise, the Spirit does what the Father and Son do but often times in a complementary role (Gen 1:2; Ps 33:6; Isa 40:12; John 16:8-11). The Holy Spirit may also be described as a divine Person in that He has His own intelligence (2 Cor 2:10-13), has affections and emotions (Acts 9:31; Rom 8:26; Eph 4:30), and in the same way the Son submitted to the Father, so the Spirit submits to the will of the Father and the Son. John 16:13-14; Acts 7:51, 15:28; 1 Cor 12:11.

[39] John 14:16-17; John 16:7-15; Rom 8:9; 1 Cor 6:9; Eph 2:22; Eph 4:3-6. “Virtually all the divine ministrations to Christians are accomplished by the Holy Spirit—regeneration, baptism, sealing, indwelling, anointing, etc. Even more directly, to resist (Acts 7:51), quench (1 Thess. 5:19), grieve (Eph. 4:30) or insult the Spirit (Heb. 10:29) is to do so to God.” – cf Dr. J. Scott Horrell, The Other Comforter, ST102OL Class Notes, DTS, 15.

[40] In general, a person is both a self-conscious entity and a relational being. “Should the Holy Spirit (already seen to be divine) evidence such characteristics [intelligence, volition, and emotion] in his relationship to the Father, Christ, and believers, then this Spirit should well be considered a person in the same sense as the Father and the Son.” Intelligence: “The Spirit demonstrates a divine intelligence which appears at once one with and yet distinct from the mind of God the Father.” See Isa 40:15-17; 1 Cor 2:10-14. Affection/Emotion: The Spirit sympathizes and supports the believer. The title Counselor suggests affective engagement of the Spirit with the believer and cares for and involves himself with each believer. See Acts 9:31; Rom 8:26; Heb 10:29. Volition: The will of the Spirit is manifested obliquely. It is the Spirit that leads the believer into a more Christlike nature. John intends for the reader to see as the Son submitted his will to the Father, in the same way the Spirit subjects His will to the Son and the Father. John 5:19, 30; 6:38; 8:50; Acts 5:9; 7:51; 13:2; 15:28; 1 Cor 12:11. – cf Dr. J. Scott Horrell, The Other Comforter, unpublished ST102OL Class Notes, DTS, 16-19.

[41] Stephen and Philip were chosen as those “known to be full of the Spirit” (Acts 6:3-5). When turning to trust in him and to receive God’s gift of salvation, the believer senses an infusion of the Lord’s presence into their innermost self – cf Dr. J. Scott Horrell, The Other Comforter, unpublished ST102OL Class Notes, DTS, 2 -3. Gen 41:38; Deut 34:9; Luke 4:18, Acts 4:8, 31.

[42] 2 Tim 3:16; 2 Pet 1:20-21.

[43] The Spirit “teaches us to pray, illumines us to the significance of Scripture for our lives, gives gifts to each believer for the building up of the church, and empowers our ministries with eternal consequences.” – cf Dr. J. Scott Horrell, The Other Comforter, ST102OL Class Notes, DTS, 21. 1 Cor 12:4, 8, 13:14

[44] “One of the most convincing arguments… of the Spirit’s deity is Matthew’s record of Jesus’ teaching on the blasphemy of the Holy Spirit (Matt 12:30-32).” This provides another argument for the Holy Spirit’s divine personhood. – cf Dr. J. Scott Horrell, The Other Comforter, unpublished ST102OL Class Notes, DTS, 20-21.

Final Passages and Thoughts on Scriptural References to the Trinity

We finish this series by looking at the last 17 Scriptural passages that exhibit this Trinitarian line of thinking. At the bottom, there is also a list of passages that are debated among scholars as to whether they exhibit a reference to the Persons of the Trinity.

To conclude all of this, as has been shown over the past few posts, the witness of the Trinity in the New Testament is more substantial than normally recognized. There are dozens of passages that speak of two members of the Trinity, i.e. Jesus and the Holy Spirit, Jesus and God the Father, the Spirit and the Father. With the abundant testimony that is economically revealed through Creation about each Person, we also see how God has truly made Himself known that we may know Him through these divine revelations.

One final thought on this, we will explore more of this in the future, but I wanted to leave with you some thoughts. There are three options for how one can arrive at a Trinitarian theology, as set forth by Maurice Wiles: (1) objective statements of God’s own revelation in Scripture and/or conciliar dogma; (2) the “inherent threefoldness” of God’s activity in salvation history; or (3) the traditional language of the church—deemed rich in devotion but dispensable in importance for true theology proper.(Maurice Wiles, “Some Reflections on the Origins of the Doctrine of the Trinity,” The Journal of Theological Studies, N.S. 8:1 (1957) 104, see 92-106, reprinted in Wiles, Working Papers in Doctrine (London: SCM, 1976) 1-17. Wiles (1923-2005). We will examine these in the future to provide further elaboration, but as with all of Christianity, our doctrine is based on the divinely inspired Word of God.

  1. 1Jn 3:21-24 Dear friends, if our hearts do not condemn us, we have confidence before God and receive from him anything we ask, because we obey his commands and do what pleases him. And this is his command: to believe in the name of his Son, Jesus Christ, and to love one another as he commanded us. Those who obey his commands live in him, and he in them. And this is how we know that he lives in us: We know it by the Spirit he gave us.
  2. 1Jn 4:2 This is how you can recognize the Spirit of God: Every spirit that acknowledges that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God,
  3. 1Jn 4:9-14 This is how God showed his love among us: He sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him. This is love: not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son as an atoning sacrifice for our sins. Dear friends, since God so loved us, we also ought to love one another. No one has ever seen God; but if we love one another, God lives in us and his love is made complete in us. We know that we live in him and he in us, because he has given us of his Spirit. And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent his Son to be the Savior of the world.
  4. 1Jn 5:3-9 This is love for God: to obey his commands. And his commands are not burdensome, for everyone born of God overcomes the world. This is the victory that has overcome the world, even our faith. Who is it that overcomes the world? Only he who believes that Jesus is the Son of God. This is the one who came by water and blood—Jesus Christ. He did not come by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth. For there are three that testify: the Spirit, the water and the blood; and the three are in agreement. We accept man’s testimony, but God’s testimony is greater because it is the testimony of God, which he has given about his Son.
  5. Jude 19-21 These are the men who divide you, who follow mere natural instincts and do not have the Spirit. But you, dear friends, build yourselves up in your most holy faith and pray in the Holy Spirit. Keep yourselves in God’s love as you wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to bring you to eternal life.
  6. Rev 1:4-8 John, To the seven churches in the province of Asia: Grace and peace to you from him who is, and who was, and who is to come, and from the seven spirits [or the sevenfold Spirit] before his throne and from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by his blood, and has made us to be a kingdom and priests to serve his God and Father—to him be glory and power for ever and ever! Amen. Look, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who pierced him; and all the peoples of the earth will mourn because of him. So shall it be! Amen. “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, “who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty.”
  1. Rev 1:9-10 I, John, your brother and companion in the suffering and kingdom and patient endurance that are ours in Jesus, was on the island of Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus. On the Lord’s Day I was in the Spirit and I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet…”
  2. Rev 2:7 [Jesus] “He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To him who overcomes, I will give the right to eat from the tree of life, which is in the paradise of God.”
  3. Rev 2:26-29 [Jesus] “To him who overcomes and does my will to the end, I will give authority over the nations—‘He will rule them with an iron scepter; he will dash them to pieces like pottery’—just as I have received authority from my Father. I will also give him the morning star. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.”
  4. Rev 3:1-2 [Jesus] “To the angel of the church in Sardis write: These are the words of him who holds the seven spirits [or the sevenfold Spirit] of God and the seven stars. I know your deeds; you have a reputation of being alive, but you are dead. Wake up! Strengthen what remains and is about to die, for I have not found your deeds complete in the sight of my God.”
  5. Rev 3:5-6 [Jesus] “He who overcomes will, like them, be dressed in white. I will never blot out his name from the book of life, but will acknowledge his name before my Father and his angels. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.”
  6. Rev 3:11-13 [Jesus] “I am coming soon. Hold on to what you have, so that no one will take your crown. Him who overcomes I will make a pillar in the temple of my God. Never again will he leave it. I will write on him the name of my God and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which is coming down out of heaven from my God; and I will also write on him my new name. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.”
  7. Rev 3:21-4:2 [Jesus] “To him who overcomes, I will give the right to sit with me on my throne, just as I overcame and sat down with my Father on his throne. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.” After this I looked, and there before me was a door standing open in heaven. And the voice I had first heard speaking to me like a trumpet said, “Come up here, and I will show you what must take place after this.” At once I was in the Spirit, and there before me was a throne in heaven with someone sitting on it.
  8. Rev 5:6-8 Then I saw a Lamb, looking as if it had been slain, standing in the center of the throne, encircled by the four living creatures and the elders. He had seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits [or sevenfold Spirit] of God sent out into all the earth. He came and took the scroll from the right hand of him who sat on the throne.”
  9. Rev 14:12-13 This calls for patient endurance on the part of the saints who obey God’s commandments and remain faithful to Jesus. Then I heard a voice from heaven say, “Write: Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord from now on.” “Yes,” says the Spirit, “they will rest from their labor, for their deeds will follow them.”
  10. Rev 21:9-11 One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls full of the seven last plagues came and said to me, “Come, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb.” And he carried me away in the Spirit to a mountain great and high, and showed me the Holy City, Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God. It shone with the glory of God, and its brilliance was like that of a very precious jewel, like a jasper, clear as crystal.
  11. Rev 22:16-21 “I, Jesus, have sent my angel to give you this testimony for the churches. I am the Root and the Offspring of David, and the bright Morning Star.” The Spirit and the bride say, “Come!” And let him who hears say, “Come!” Whoever is thirsty, let him come; and whoever wishes, let him take the free gift of the water of life. I warn everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds anything to them, God will add to him the plagues described in this book. And if anyone takes words away from this book of prophecy, God will take away from him his share in the tree of life and in the holy city, which are described in this book. He who testifies to these things says, “Yes, I am coming soon.” Amen. Come, Lord Jesus.


Additional references that are debatable are:

Luke 11:19-20, Now if I drive out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your followers drive them out? So then, they will be your judges. 20 But if I drive out demons by the finger of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.

John 4:23-26, Yet a time is coming and has now come when the true worshipers will worship the Father in the Spirit and in truth, for they are the kind of worshipers the Father seeks. 24 God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in the Spirit and in truth.” 25 The woman said, “I know that Messiah” (called Christ) “is coming. When he comes, he will explain everything to us.” 26 Then Jesus declared, “I, the one speaking to you—I am he.”

Acts 8:35-39, Then Philip began with that very passage of Scripture and told him the good news about Jesus. 36 As they traveled along the road, they came to some water and the eunuch said, “Look, here is water. What can stand in the way of my being baptized?” [37] [Philip said, “If you believe with all your heart, you may.” The eunuch answered, “I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.”] 38 And he gave orders to stop the chariot. Then both Philip and the eunuch went down into the water and Philip baptized him. 39 When they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord suddenly took Philip away, and the eunuch did not see him again, but went on his way rejoicing.

Acts 9:17-20, Then Ananias went to the house and entered it. Placing his hands on Saul, he said, “Brother Saul, the Lord—Jesus, who appeared to you on the road as you were coming here—has sent me so that you may see again and be filled with the Holy Spirit.” 18 Immediately, something like scales fell from Saul’s eyes, and he could see again. He got up and was baptized, 19 and after taking some food, he regained his strength. Saul spent several days with the disciples in Damascus. 20 At once he began to preach in the synagogues that Jesus is the Son of God.

Acts 16:6-10, Paul and his companions traveled throughout the region of Phrygia and Galatia, having been kept by the Holy Spirit from preaching the word in the province of Asia. 7 When they came to the border of Mysia, they tried to enter Bithynia, but the Spirit of Jesus would not allow them to. 8 So they passed by Mysia and went down to Troas. 9 During the night Paul had a vision of a man of Macedonia standing and begging him, “Come over to Macedonia and help us.” 10 After Paul had seen the vision, we got ready at once to leave for Macedonia, concluding that God had called us to preach the gospel to them.

Eph 6:17-24, Take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. 18 And pray in the Spirit on all occasions with all kinds of prayers and requests. With this in mind, be alert and always keep on praying for all the Lord’s people. 19 Pray also for me, that whenever I speak, words may be given me so that I will fearlessly make known the mystery of the gospel, 20 for which I am an ambassador in chains. Pray that I may declare it fearlessly, as I should. 21 Tychicus, the dear brother and faithful servant in the Lord, will tell you everything, so that you also may know how I am and what I am doing. 22 I am sending him to you for this very purpose, that you may know how we are, and that he may encourage you. 23 Peace to the brothers and sisters,[c] and love with faith from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 24 Grace to all who love our Lord Jesus Christ with an undying love.

Rev 19:10, At this I fell at his feet to worship him. But he said to me, “Don’t do that! I am a fellow servant with you and with your brothers and sisters who hold to the testimony of Jesus. Worship God! For it is the Spirit of prophecy who bears testimony to Jesus.”

More Scriptural passages regarding the Trinity

Today, we continue looking at biblical references about the Trinity, focusing on numbers 76-100. This will focus on Scriptural passages found in Ephesians 3 through 2 Peter. Again, these are passages that exhibit Trinitarian references or a unit of thought. Some exegetes may divide up some of these passages, but are kept together for a unit of thought purpose. However, there are also certain passages that are appropriate to divide (Ac 20:21-24, 27-28). It is all subjective and up to the reader.

The main point of this whole exercise is to show that the Persons of the Godhead are spoken about in certain blocks of Scripture reinforcing a Trinitarian belief. (For more information on this, please refer back to the original post that will give a little more background).

  1. Eph 3:2-5 Surely you have heard about the administration of God’s grace that was given to me for you, that is, the mystery made known to me by revelation, as I have already written briefly. In reading this, then, you will be able to understand my insight into the mystery of Christ, which was not made known to men in other generations as it has now been revealed by the Spirit to God’s holy apostles and prophets.
  2. Eph 3:10-17 His intent was that now, through the church, the manifold wisdom of God should be made known to the rulers and authorities in the heavenly realms, according to his eternal purpose which he accomplished in Christ Jesus our Lord. In him and through faith in him we may approach God with freedom and confidence. I ask you, therefore, not to be discouraged because of my sufferings for you, which are your glory. For this reason I kneel before the Father, from whom his whole family in heaven and on earth derives its name. I pray that out of his glorious riches he may strengthen you with power through his Spirit in your inner being, so that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith.
  3. Eph 4:3-6 Make every effort to keep the unity of the Spirit through the bond of peace. There is one body and one Spirit—just as you were called to one hope when you were called—one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all.
  4. Eph 4:30-32 And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, with whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. Get rid of all bitterness, rage and anger, brawling and slander, along with every form of malice. Be kind and compassionate to one another, forgiving each other, just as in Christ God forgave you.
  5. Eph 5:18-20 Do not get drunk on wine, which leads to debauchery. Instead, be filled with the Spirit. Speak to one another with psalms, hymns and spiritual songs. Sing and make music in your heart to the Lord, always giving thanks to God the Father for everything, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
  6. Php 2:1-6 If you have any encouragement from being united with Christ, if any comfort from his love, if any fellowship with the Spirit, if any tenderness and compassion, then make my joy complete by being like-minded, having the same love, being one in spirit and purpose. Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit, but in humility consider others better than yourselves. Each of you should look not only to your own interests, but also to the interests of others. Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus: Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped,
  7. Php 3:1-3 Finally, my brothers, rejoice in the Lord! [cf.2:29-30]… For it is we who are the circumcision, we who worship by the Spirit of God, who glory in Christ Jesus, and who put no confidence in the flesh—
  8. Col 1:6-8 All over the world this gospel is bearing fruit and growing, just as it has been doing among you since the day you heard it and understood God’s grace in all its truth. You learned it from Epaphras, our dear fellow servant, who is a faithful minister of Christ on our behalf, and who also told us of your love in the Spirit.
  9. 1Th 1:1-6 Paul, Silas and Timothy, To the church of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace and peace to you. We always thank God for all of you, mentioning you in our prayers. We continually remember before our God and Father your work produced by faith, your labor prompted by love, and your endurance inspired by hope in our Lord Jesus Christ. For we know, brothers loved by God, that he has chosen you, because our gospel came to you not simply with words, but also with power, with the Holy Spirit and with deep conviction. You know how we lived among you for your sake. You became imitators of us and of the Lord; in spite of severe suffering, you welcomed the message with the joy given by the Holy Spirit.
  10. 1Th 4:2-8 For you know what instructions we gave you by the authority of the Lord Jesus. It is God’s will that you should be sanctified: that you should avoid sexual immorality; that each of you should learn to control his own body in a way that is holy and honorable, not in passionate lust like the heathen, who do not know God; and that in this matter no one should wrong his brother or take advantage of him. The Lord will punish men for all such sins, as we have already told you and warned you. For God did not call us to be impure, but to live a holy life. Therefore, he who rejects this instruction does not reject man but God, who gives you his Holy Spirit.
  11. 1Th 5:18-23 give thanks in all circumstances, for this is God’s will for you in Christ Jesus. Do not put out the Spirit’s fire; do not treat prophecies with contempt. Test everything. Hold on to the good. Avoid every kind of evil. May God himself, the God of peace, sanctify you through and through. May your whole spirit, soul and body be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
  12. 2Th 2:13-14 But we ought always to thank God for you, brothers loved by the Lord, because from the beginning God chose you to be saved through the sanctifying work of the Spirit and through belief in the truth. He called you to this through our gospel, that you might share in the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.
  13. 1Ti 3:14-4:1 Although I hope to come to you soon, I am writing you these instructions so that, if I am delayed, you will know how people ought to conduct themselves in God’s household, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and foundation of the truth. Beyond all question, the mystery of godliness is great: He appeared in a body, was vindicated by the Spirit, was seen by angels, was preached among the nations, was believed on in the world, was taken up in glory. The Spirit clearly says that in later times some will abandon the faith and follow deceiving spirits and things taught by demons.
  14. 2Ti 1:7-14 For God did not give us a spirit of timidity, but a spirit of power, of love and of self-discipline. So do not be ashamed to testify about our Lord, or ashamed of me his prisoner. But join with me in suffering for the gospel, by the power of God, who has saved us and called us to a holy life—not because of anything we have done but because of his own purpose and grace. This grace was given us in Christ Jesus before the beginning of time, but it has now been revealed through the appearing of our Savior, Christ Jesus, who has destroyed death and has brought life and immortality to light through the gospel. And of this gospel I was appointed a herald and an apostle and a teacher. That is why I am suffering as I am. Yet I am not ashamed, because I know whom I have believed, and am convinced that he is able to guard what I have entrusted to him for that day. What you heard from me, keep as the pattern of sound teaching, with faith and love in Christ Jesus. Guard the good deposit that was entrusted to you—guard it with the help of the Holy Spirit who lives in us.
  1. Tit 3:4-6 But when the kindness and love of God our Savior appeared, he saved us, not because of righteous things we had done, but because of his mercy. He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit, whom he poured out on us generously through Jesus Christ our Savior,
  2. Heb 2:3-4 how shall we escape if we ignore such a great salvation? This salvation, which was first announced by the Lord, was confirmed to us by those who heard him. God also testified to it by signs, wonders and various miracles, and gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will.
  3. Heb 3:4-7 For every house is built by someone, but God is the builder of everything. Moses was faithful as a servant in all God’s house, testifying to what would be said in the future. But Christ is faithful as a son over God’s house. And we are his house, if we hold on to our courage and the hope of which we boast. So, as the Holy Spirit says: “Today, if you hear his voice,
  1. Heb 6:4-6 It is impossible for those who have once been enlightened, who have tasted the heavenly gift, who have shared in the Holy Spirit, who have tasted the goodness of the word of God and the powers of the coming age, if they fall away, to be brought back to repentance, because to their loss they are crucifying the Son of God all over again and subjecting him to public disgrace.
  2. Heb 9:14 How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God!
  3. Heb 10:12-15 But when this priest had offered for all time one sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God. Since that time he waits for his enemies to be made his footstool, because by one sacrifice he has made perfect forever those who are being made holy. The Holy Spirit also testifies to us about this.
  4. Heb 10:29-31 How much more severely do you think a man deserves to be punished who has trampled the Son of God under foot, who has treated as an unholy thing the blood of the covenant that sanctified him, and who has insulted the Spirit of grace? For we know him who said, “It is mine to avenge; I will repay,” and again, “The Lord will judge his people.” It is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.
  5. 1Pe 1:2 who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood:
  6. 1Pe 3:18 For Christ died for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, to bring you to God. He was put to death in the body but made alive by the Spirit,
  7. 1Pe 4:13-16 But rejoice that you participate in the sufferings of Christ, so that you may be overjoyed when his glory is revealed. If you are insulted because of the name of Christ, you are blessed, for the Spirit of glory and of God rests on you. If you suffer, it should not be as a murderer or thief or any other kind of criminal, or even as a meddler. However, if you suffer as a Christian, do not be ashamed, but praise God that you bear that name.
  8. 2Pe 1:16-21 We did not follow cleverly invented stories when we told you about the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty. For he received honor and glory from God the Father when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, saying, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.” We ourselves heard this voice that came from heaven when we were with him on the sacred mountain. And we have the word of the prophets made more certain, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts. Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation. For prophecy never had its origin in the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.

Scriptural passages on the Trinity continued

Our journey through the New Testament continues today as we look at the next 25 passages that have reference the Persons of the Trinity. This will look at numbers 51-75, taking us from Romans 8 through Ephesians 2. For more information on the reasoning that these passages are included, please refer back to the initial post.

  1. Ro 8:9–17 Those controlled by the sinful nature cannot please God. You, however, are controlled not by the sinful nature but by the Spirit, if the Spirit of God lives in you. And if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Christ. But if Christ is in you, your body is dead because of sin, yet your spirit is alive because of righteousness. And if the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead is living in you, he who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit, who lives in you. Therefore, brothers, we have an obligation—but not to the sinful nature, to live according to it. For if you live according to the sinful nature, you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the misdeeds of the body, you will live, because those who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God. For you did not receive a spirit that makes you a slave again to fear, but you received the Spirit of sonship. And by him we cry, “Abba, Father.” The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are God’s children. Now if we are children, then we are heirs—heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ, if indeed we share in his sufferings in order that we may also share in his glory.
  2. Ro 8:26–29 In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness. We do not know what we ought to pray for, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groans that words cannot express. And he who searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes for the saints in accordance with God’s will. And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to his purpose. For those God foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the likeness of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers
  3. Ro 8:38–9:5 For I am convinced that neither death nor life, neither angels nor demons, neither the present nor the future, nor any powers, neither height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God that is in Christ Jesus our Lord. I speak the truth in Christ—I am not lying, my conscience confirms it in the Holy Spirit— I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. For I could wish that I myself were cursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brothers, those of my own race, the people of Israel. Theirs is the adoption as sons; theirs the divine glory, the covenants, the receiving of the law, the temple worship and the promises. Theirs are the patriarchs, and from them is traced the human ancestry of Christ, who is God over all, forever praised! Amen.
  4. Ro 14:17–18 For the kingdom of God is not a matter of eating and drinking, but of righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Spirit, because anyone who serves Christ in this way is pleasing to God and approved by men.
  5. Ro 15:12–13 And again, Isaiah says, “The Root of Jesse will spring up, one who will arise to rule over the nations; the Gentiles will hope in him.” May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace as you trust in him, so that you may overflow with hope by the power of the Holy Spirit
  6. Ro 15:15b–17 because of the grace God gave me to be a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles with the priestly duty of proclaiming the gospel of God, so that the Gentiles might become an offering acceptable to God, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. Therefore I glory in Christ Jesus in my service to God.
  7. Ro 15:30 I urge you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by the love of the Spirit, to join me in my struggle by praying to God for me.
  8. 1Co 2:1–5 When I came to you, brothers, I did not come with eloquence or superior wisdom as I proclaimed to you the testimony about God. For I resolved to know nothing while I was with you except Jesus Christ and him crucified. I came to you in weakness and fear, and with much trembling. My message and my preaching were not with wise and persuasive words, but with a demonstration of the Spirit’s power, so that your faith might not rest on men’s wisdom, but on God’s power.
  9. 1Co 2:8–16 None of the rulers of this age understood it, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. However, as it is written: “No eye has seen, no ear has heard, no mind has conceived what God has prepared for those who love him”—but God has revealed it to us by his Spirit. The Spirit searches all things, even the deep things of God. For who among men knows the thoughts of a man except the man’s spirit within him? In the same way no one knows the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God. We have not received the spirit of the world but the Spirit who is from God, that we may understand what God has freely given us. This is what we speak, not in words taught us by human wisdom but in words taught by the Spirit, expressing spiritual truths in spiritual words. The man without the Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God, for they are foolishnessto him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned. The spiritual man makes judgments about all things, but he himself is not subject to any man’s judgment: “For who has known the mind of the Lord that he may instruct him?” But we have the mind of Christ.
  1. 1Co 3:10–16 By the grace God has given me, I laid a foundation as an expert builder, and someone else is building on it. But each one should be careful how he builds. For no one can lay any foundation other than the one already laid, which is Jesus Christ. If any man builds on this foundation using gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay or straw, his work will be shown for what it is, because the Day will bring it to light. It will be revealed with fire, and the fire will test the quality of each man’s work. If what he has built survives, he will receive his reward. If it is burned up, he will suffer loss; he himself will be saved, but only as one escaping through the flames. Don’t you know that you yourselves are God’s temple and that God’s Spirit lives in you?
  2. 1Co 6:10b–11 nor thieves nor the greedy nor drunkards nor slanderers nor swindlers will inherit the kingdom of God. And that is what some of you were. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God.
  3. 1Co 6:15–20 Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ himself? Shall I then take the members of Christ and unite them with a prostitute? Never! Do you not know that he who unites himself with a prostitute is one with her in body? For it is said, “The two will become one flesh.” But he who unites himself with the Lord is one with him in spirit. Flee from sexual immorality. All other sins a man commits are outside his body, but he who sins sexually sins against his own body. Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God? You are not your own; you were bought at a price. Therefore honor God with your body
  4. 1Co 12:3–6 Therefore I tell you that no one who is speaking by the Spirit of God says, “Jesusbe cursed,” and no one can say, “Jesus is Lord,” except by the Holy Spirit. There are different kinds of gifts, but the same Spirit. There are different kinds of service, but the same Lord. There are different kinds of working, but the same God works all of them in all men.
  5. 2Co 1:21–22 Now it is God who makes both us and you stand firm in Christ. He anointed us, set his seal of ownership on us, and put his Spirit in our hearts as a deposit, guaranteeing what is to come.
  6. 2Co 3:3–6 You show that you are a letter from Christ, the result of our ministry, written not with ink but with the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of human hearts. Such confidence as this is ours through Christ before God. Not that we are competent in ourselves to claim anything for ourselves, but our competence comes from God. Not that we are competent in ourselves to claim anything for ourselves, but our competence comes from God. He has made us competent as ministers of a new covenant—not of the letter but of the Spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life.
  7. 2Co 3:14–18 But their minds were made dull, for to this day the same veil remains when the old covenant is read. It has not been removed, because only in Christ is it taken away. Even to this day when Moses is read, a veil covers their hearts. But whenever anyone turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away. Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. And we, who with unveiled faces all reflect the Lord’s glory, are being transformed into his likeness with ever-increasing glory, which comes from the Lord, who is the Spirit.
  8. 2Co 5:1–10 Now we know that if the earthly tent we live in is destroyed, we have a building from God, an eternal house in heaven, not built by human hands. Meanwhile we groan, longing to be clothed with our heavenly dwelling, because when we are clothed, we will not be found naked. For while we are in this tent, we groan and are burdened, because we do not wish to be unclothed but to be clothed with our heavenly dwelling, so that what is mortal may be swallowed up by life. Now it is God who has made us for this very purpose and has given us the Spirit as a deposit, guaranteeing what is to come. Therefore we are always confident and know that as long as we are at home in the body we are away from the Lord. We live by faith, not by sight. We are confident, I say, and would prefer to be away from the body and at home with the Lord. So we make it our goal to please him, whether we are at home in the body or away from it. For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that each one may receive what is due him for the things done while in the body, whether good or bad.
  1. 2Co 13:14 May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.
  2. Gal 2:21–3:5 I do not set aside the grace of God, for if righteousness could be gained through the law, Christ died for nothing!” You foolish Galatians! Who has bewitched you? Before your very eyes Jesus Christ was clearly portrayed as crucified. I would like to learn just one thing from you: Did you receive the Spirit by observing the law, or by believing what you heard? Are you so foolish? After beginning with the Spirit, are you now trying to attain your goal by human effort? Have you suffered so much for nothing—if it really was for nothing? Does God give you his Spirit and work miracles among you because you observe the law, or because you believe what you heard?
  1. Gal 3:10–14 All who rely on observing the law are under a curse, for it is written: “Cursed is everyone who does not continue to do everything written in the Book of the Law.” Clearly no one is justified before God by the law, because, “The righteous will live by faith.” The law is not based on faith; on the contrary, “The man who does these things will live by them.” Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us, for it is written: “Cursed is everyone who is hung on a tree.” He redeemed us in order that the blessing given to Abraham might come to the Gentiles through Christ Jesus, so that by faith we might receive the promise of the Spirit
  1. Gal 4:4–6 But when the time had fully come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under law, to redeem those under law, that we might receive the full rights of sons. Because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, the Spirit who calls out, “Abba, Father.”
  2. Gal 5:21–24 I warn you, as I did before, that those who live like this will not inherit the kingdom of God. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control. Against such things there is no law. Those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the sinful nature with its passions and desires.
  3. Eph 1:3–14 Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in the heavenly realms with every spiritual blessing in Christ. For he chose us in him before the creation of the world to be holy and blameless in his sight. In love he predestined us to be adopted as his sons through Jesus Christ, in accordance with his pleasure and will—to the praise of his glorious grace, which he has freely given us in the One he loves. In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, in accordance with the riches of God’s grace that he lavished on us with all wisdom and understanding. And he made known to us the mystery of his will according to his good pleasure, which he purposed in Christ, to be put into effect when the times will have reached their fulfillment—to bring all things in heaven and on earth together under one head, even Christ. In him we were also chosen, having been predestined according to the plan of him who works out everything in conformity with the purpose of his will, in order that we, who were the first to hope in Christ, might be for the praise of his glory. And you also were included in Christ when you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation. Having believed, you were marked in him with a seal, the promised Holy Spirit, who is a deposit guaranteeing our inheritance until the redemption of those who are God’s possession—to the praise of his glory.
  4. Eph 1:17 I keep asking that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the glorious Father, may give you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation, so that you may know him better.
  1. Eph 2:13–22 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far away have been brought near through the blood of Christ. For he himself is our peace… His purpose was to create in himself one new man out of two, thus making peace, and in this one body to reconcile both of them to God through the cross, by which he put to death their hostility. For through him we both have access to the Father by one Spirit. Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with God’s people and members of God’s household, built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the chief cornerstone. In him the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy temple in the Lord. And in him you too are being built together to become a dwelling in which God lives by his Spirit.

Bible References to the Trinity Continued

Today, we look at the next 25 Bible references that point to the Trinity. For more information on this, please refer to the first post, here

  1. Jn 14:23-26 Jesus replied, “If anyone loves me, he will obey my teaching. My Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our home with him. He who does not love me will not obey my teaching. These words you hear are not my own; they belong to the Father who sent me. “All this I have spoken while still with you. But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you.”
  2. Jn 15:26 [Jesus] “When the Counselor comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me.”
  3. Jn 16:7-15 [Jesus] “But I tell you the truth: It is for your good that I am going away. Unless I go away, the Counselor will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. When he comes, he will convict the world of guilt in regard to sin and righteousness and judgment: in regard to sin, because men do not believe in me; in regard to righteousness, because I am going to the Father, where you can see me no longer; and in regard to judgment, because the prince of this world now stands condemned. “I have much more to say to you, more than you can now bear. But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. He will bring glory to me by taking from what is mine and making it known to you. All that belongs to the Father is mine. That is why I said the Spirit will take from what is mine and make it known to you.”
  4. Jn 20:21-22 Again Jesus said, “Peace be with you! As the Father has sent me, I am sending you.” And with that he breathed on them and said, “Receive the Holy Spirit.”
  5. Ac 1:1-8 In my former book, Theophilus, I wrote about all that Jesus began to do and to teach until the day he was taken up to heaven, after giving instructions through the Holy Spirit to the apostles he had chosen. After his suffering, he showed himself to these men and gave many convincing proofs that he was alive. He appeared to them over a period of forty days and spoke about the kingdom of God. On one occasion, while he was eating with them, he gave them this command: “Do not leave Jerusalem, but wait for the gift my Father promised, which you have heard me speak about. For John baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.” So when they met together, they asked him, “Lord, are you at this time going to restore the kingdom to Israel?” He said to them: “It is not for you to know the times or dates the Father has set by his own authority. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.”
  6. Ac 2:16-24 [Peter] “No, this is what was spoken by the prophet Joel: ‘In the last days, God says, I will pour out my Spirit on all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your young men will see visions, your old men will dream dreams. Even on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy. I will show wonders in the heaven above and signs on the earth below, blood and fire and billows of smoke. The sun will be turned to darkness and the moon to blood before the coming of the great and glorious day of the Lord. And everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.’ Men of Israel, listen to this: Jesus of Nazareth was a man accredited by God to you by miracles, wonders and signs, which God did among you through him, as you yourselves know. This man was handed over to you by God’s set purpose and foreknowledge; and you, with the help of wicked men, put him to death by nailing him to the cross. But God raised him from the dead, freeing him from the agony of death, because it was impossible for death to keep its hold on him.”
  1. Ac 2:32-38 [Peter] “God has raised this Jesus to life, and we are all witnesses of the fact. Exalted to the right hand of God, he has received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit and has poured out what you now see and hear. For David did not ascend to heaven, and yet he said, ‘The Lord said to my Lord: “Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”’ Therefore let all Israel be assured of this: God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ.” When the people heard this, they were cut to the heart and said to Peter and the other apostles, “Brothers, what shall we do?” Peter replied, Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.”
  1. Ac 4:8-10 Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said to them: “Rulers and elders of the people! If we are being called to account today for an act of kindness shown to a cripple and are asked how he was healed, then know this, you and all the people of Israel: It is by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you crucified but whom God raised from the dead, that this man stands before you healed.”
  2. Ac 4:24-26 When they heard this, they raised their voices together in prayer to God. “Sovereign Lord,” they said, “you made the heaven and the earth and the sea, and everything in them. You spoke by the Holy Spirit through the mouth of your servant, our father David: ‘Why do the nations rage and the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth take their stand and the rulers gather together against the Lord and against his Anointed One.’”
  3. Ac 4:29-31 [Peter, John, and Christian assembly] “Now, Lord, consider their threats and enable your servants to speak your word with great boldness. Stretch out your hand to heal and perform miraculous signs and wonders through the name of your holy servant Jesus.” After they prayed, the place where they were meeting was shaken. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and spoke the word of God boldly.
  4. Ac 5:29-32 Peter and the other apostles replied: “We must obey God rather than men! The God of our fathers raised Jesus from the dead—whom you had killed by hanging him on a tree. God exalted him to his own right hand as Prince and Savior that he might give repentance and forgiveness of sins to Israel. We are witnesses of these things, and so is the Holy Spirit, whom God has given to those who obey him.”
  5. Ac 7:48-52 [Stephen] “However, the Most High does not live in houses made by men. As the prophet says: ‘Heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool. What kind of house will you build for me? says the Lord. Or where will my resting place be? Has not my hand made all these things?’ You stiff-necked people, with uncircumcised hearts and ears! You are just like your fathers: You always resist the Holy Spirit! Was there ever a prophet your fathers did not persecute? They even killed those who predicted the coming of the Righteous One. And now you have betrayed and murdered him—“
  6. Ac 7:55-56 But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. “Look,” he said, “I see heaven open and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God.”
  7. Ac 8:14-21 When the apostles in Jerusalem heard that Samaria had accepted the word of God, they sent Peter and John to them. When they arrived, they prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Spirit, because the Holy Spirit had not yet come upon any of them; they had simply been baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. Then Peter and John placed their hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit. When Simon saw that the Spirit was given at the laying on of the apostles’ hands, he offered them money and said, “Give me also this ability so that everyone on whom I lay my hands may receive the Holy Spirit.” Peter answered: “May your money perish with you, because you thought you could buy the gift of God with money! You have no part or share in this ministry, because your heart is not right before God.”
  8. Ac 9:27-31 But Barnabas took him and brought him to the apostles. He told them how Saul on his journey had seen the Lord [Jesus] and that the Lord had spoken to him, and how in Damascus he had preached fearlessly in the name of Jesus. So Saul stayed with them and moved about freely in Jerusalem, speaking boldly in the name of the Lord. He talked and debated with the Grecian Jews, but they tried to kill him. When the brothers learned of this, they took him down to Caesarea and sent him off to Tarsus. Then the church throughout Judea, Galilee and Samaria enjoyed a time of peace. It was strengthened; and encouraged by the Holy Spirit, it grew in numbers, living in the fear of the Lord [Father?].
  9. Ac 10:36-38 [Peter] “You know the message God sent to the people of Israel, telling the good news of peace through Jesus Christ, who is Lord of all. …how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and power, and how he went around doing good and healing all who were under the power of the devil, because God was with him.
  10. Ac 10:44-48 While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit came on all who heard the message. The circumcised believers who had come with Peter were astonished that the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out even on the Gentiles. For they heard them speaking in tongues and praising God. Then Peter said, “Can anyone keep these people from being baptized with water? They have received the Holy Spirit just as we have.” So he ordered that they be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ.”
  11. Ac 11:15-17 [Peter] “As I began to speak, the Holy Spirit came on them as he had come on us at the beginning. Then I remembered what the Lord had said: ‘John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.’ So if God gave them the same gift as he gave us, who believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I to think that I could oppose God?”
  12. Ac 15:7-11 After much discussion, Peter got up and addressed them: “Brothers, you know that some time ago God made a choice among you that the Gentiles might hear from my lips the message of the gospel and believe. God, who knows the heart, showed that he accepted them by giving the Holy Spirit to them, just as he did to us. He made no distinction between us and them, for he purified their hearts by faith. Now then, why do you try to test God by putting on the necks of the disciples a yoke that neither we nor our fathers have been able to bear? No! We believe it is through the grace of our Lord Jesus that we are saved, just as they are.”
  13. Ac 20:21-28 [Paul] “I have declared to both Jews and Greeks that they must turn to God in repentance and have faith in our Lord Jesus. And now, compelled by the Spirit, I am going to Jerusalem, not knowing what will happen to me there. I only know that in every city the Holy Spirit warns me that prison and hardships are facing me. However, I consider my life worth nothing to me, if only I may finish the race and complete the task the Lord Jesus has given me–the task of testifying to the gospel of God’s grace… For I have not hesitated to proclaim to you the whole will of God. Keep watch over yourselves and all the flock of which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers. Be shepherds of the church of God, which he bought with his own blood.”
  14. Ac 28:23-25 They arranged to meet Paul on a certain day, and came in even larger numbers to the place where he was staying. From morning till evening he explained and declared to them the kingdom of God and tried to convince them about Jesus from the Law of Moses and from the Prophets. Some were convinced by what he said, but others would not believe. They disagreed among themselves and began to leave after Paul had made this final statement: “The Holy Spirit spoke the truth to your forefathers when he said through Isaiah the prophet…”
  15. Ro 1:1-4 Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle and set apart for the gospel of God—the gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures regarding his Son, who as to his human nature was a descendant of David, and who through the Spirit of holiness was declared with power to be the Son of God by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord.
  16. Ro 5:1-8 Therefore, since we have been justified through faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have gained access by faith into this grace in which we now stand. And we rejoice in the hope of the glory of God. Not only so, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; perseverance, character; and character, hope. And hope does not disappoint us, because God has poured out his love into our hearts by the Holy Spirit, whom he has given us. You see, at just the right time, when we were still powerless, Christ died for the ungodly. Very rarely will anyone die for a righteous man, though for a good man someone might possibly dare to die. But God demonstrates his own love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us.
  17. Ro 7:4-6 So, my brothers, you also died to the law through the body of Christ, that you might belong to another, to him who was raised from the dead, in order that we might bear fruit to God. For when we were controlled by the sinful nature, the sinful passions aroused by the law were at work in our bodies, so that we bore fruit for death. But now, by dying to what once bound us, we have been released from the law so that we serve in the new way of the Spirit, and not in the old way of the written code.
  18. Ro 8:1-3 Therefore, there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus, because through Christ Jesus the law of the Spirit of life set me free from the law of sin and death. For what the law was powerless to do in that it was weakened by the sinful nature, God did by sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful man to be a sin offering. And so he condemned sin in sinful man,

117 Trinitarian Texts in the New Testament

The argument is generally the same no matter who you ask. From atheists to those of different religions to even different sects within the Christian , all observe that the term Trinity (nor any directly related word) is found in Scripture. Many scholars agree that a reasoned concept of the triune God was not explicit in the minds of the New Testament authors even though John appears conscious of what has been termed “the problem of the Trinity.”[1] The doctrine of the Trinity, like many other classical doctrines of Christendom, was organized and articulated after the writing of the NT. However, no other confession of faith is so foundational to historic Christian faith and to a mature biblical view. The knowledge of god as Holy Trinity is formed, structured, corrected, and (to some extent) limited by witness of the Scripture.[2]

The purpose of this post is to show that while the word or related words to Trinity do not appear in Scripture, this doctrine did not appear out of thin air but is found throughout Scripture. This post will focus on Trinitarian text (passages) that are prevalent throughout the New Testament and provide a basis/foundation for a doctrine of the Trinity. I am not arguing that the word Trinity appears in some obscure form or is found in a Greek word that we no longer know about, but the idea/concept is prevalent in Scripture. The Bible is the fundamental source and controlling framework for a Trinitarian theology.

There are at least 117 text that have been compiled by Dr. Horrel of DTS and other theologians[3] by various word searches and comparisons. The text might be included for a single reference that can be subjective, but the effort is to include texts within a unit of thought. There are several references that could be included in this list but they do not have a final verdict on them.[4] Conversely, there are several that could be questioned if the author really intended Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. “Certain longer passages as a single reference (or thought unit) whereas some exegetes may divide such texts into multiple Trinitarian references (e.g., Jn 16:7-15; Ac 1:1-8; Ro 8:9-17; 1Co 2:8-16). Other times it seems appropriate to divide the reference (Ac 20:21-24, 27-28). When phrases like “Son of God,” “Spirit of God,” “Spirit of the Lord,” and “Spirit of Jesus” occur (cf. Ac 8:35-39; 9:17-20; 16:6-7), the expression is taken to denote one person of the Godhead. Where the single phrase “the Spirit of your Father” (Mt 10:20) is found, this is deemed reflective of two rather than one person of the Godhead. The phrase “the seven spirits” (or “the sevenfold Spirit”) in the Book of Revelation is taken as a reference to the Holy Spirit.”[5] All citations are in the NIV

I will be breaking these down into more manageable sections over the next few days instead of posting all 117 here in one post. Here are the first 25.

  1. Mt 1:18-23 This is how the birth of Jesus Christ came about: His mother Mary was pledged to be married to Joseph, but before they came together, she was found to be with child through the Holy Spirit. Because Joseph her husband was a righteous man and did not want to expose her to public disgrace, he had in mind to divorce her quietly. But after he had considered this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, “Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins.” All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: “The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel”—which means, “God with us.”
  2. Mt 3:16-17 As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting on him. And a voice from heaven said, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.”
  3. Mt 4:1-4 Then Jesus was led by the Spirit into the desert to be tempted by the devil. After fasting forty days and forty nights, he was hungry. The tempter came to him and said, “If you are the Son of God, tell these stones to become bread.” Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Man does not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God.’”
  4. Mt. 10:20-22 [Jesus] “For it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you. Brother will deliver brother over to death, and the father his child, and children will rise against parents and have them put to death, and you will be hated by all for my name’s sake.”
  5. Mt 12:15-18 Aware of this, Jesus withdrew from that place. Many followed him, and he healed all their sick, warning them not to tell who he was. This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet Isaiah: [YHWH] “Here is my servant whom I have chosen, the one I love, in whom I delight; I will put my Spirit on him, and he will proclaim justice to the nations.
  6. Mt 12:28, 31-32 [Jesus] “But if I drive out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you. And so I tell you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven men, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven. Anyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but anyone who speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come.” [See parallel “the finger of God” Lk 11:19-20]
  7. Mt 22:41-45 While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them, “What do you think about the Christ? Whose son is he?” “The son of David,” they replied. He said to them, “How is it then that David, speaking by the Spirit, calls him ‘Lord’? For he says, ‘The Lord said to my Lord: “Sit at my right hand until I put your enemies under your feet.”’ If then David calls him ‘Lord,’ how can he be his son?
  8. Mt 28:18-20 Then Jesus came to them and said, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.”
  9. Mk 1:8-12 [John] “I baptize you with water, but he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.” At that time Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan. As Jesus was coming up out of the water, he saw heaven being torn open and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.” At once the Spirit sent him out into the desert…
  10. Mk 12:35-37 While Jesus was teaching in the temple courts, he asked, “How is it that the teachers of the law say that the Christ is the son of David? David himself, speaking by the Holy Spirit, declared: “‘The Lord said to my Lord: “Sit at my right hand until I put your enemies under your feet.”’ David himself calls him ‘Lord.’ How then can he be his son?” The large crowd listened to him with delight.
  11. Lk 1:30-35 But the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, you have found favor with God. You will be with child and give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever; his kingdom will never end.” “How will this be,” Mary asked the angel, “since I am a virgin?” The angel answered, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God.
  12. Lk 1:41-45 When Elizabeth heard Mary’s greeting, the baby leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. In a loud voice she exclaimed: “Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the child you will bear! But why am I so favored, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? As soon as the sound of your greeting reached my ears, the baby in my womb leaped for joy. Blessed is she who has believed that what the Lord has said to her will be accomplished!”
  13. 13. Lk 1:67-69 His father Zechariah was filled with the Holy Spirit and prophesied: “Praise be to the Lord, the God of Israel, because he has come and has redeemed his people. He has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David.
  14. Lk 2:25-30 Now there was a man in Jerusalem called Simeon, who was righteous and devout. He was waiting for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him. It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not die before he had seen the Lord’s Christ. Moved by the Spirit, he went into the temple courts. When the parents brought in the child Jesus to do for him what the custom of the Law required, Simeon took him in his arms and praised God, saying: “Sovereign Lord, as you have promised, you now dismiss your servant in peace. For my eyes have seen your salvation,
  15. Lk 3:21-22 When all the people were being baptized, Jesus was baptized too. And as he was praying, heaven was opened and the Holy Spirit descended on him in bodily form like a dove. And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.”
  16. Lk 4:1-14 Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan and was led by the Spirit in the desert, where for forty days he was tempted by the devil. He ate nothing during those days, and at the end of them he was hungry. The devil said to him, “If you are the Son of God, tell this stone to become bread.” Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Man does not live on bread alone.’“ The devil led him up to a high place and showed him in an instant all the kingdoms of the world. And he said to him, “I will give you all their authority and splendor, for it has been given to me, and I can give it to anyone I want to. So if you worship me, it will all be yours.”Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God and serve him only.’“ The devil led him to Jerusalem and had him stand on the highest point of the temple. “If you are the Son of God,” he said, “throw yourself down from here. For it is written: “‘He will command his angels concerning you to guard you carefully; they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone.’“ Jesus answered, “It says: ‘Do not put the Lord your God to the test.’“ When the devil had finished all this tempting, he left him until an opportune time. Jesus returned to Galilee in the power of the Spirit, and news about him spread through the whole countryside.
  17. Lk 4:16-19 He went to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, and on the Sabbath day he went into the synagogue, as was his custom. And he stood up to read. The scroll of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. Unrolling it, he found the place where it is written: “The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.”
  18. Lk 10:21-22 At that time Jesus, full of joy through the Holy Spirit, said, “I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and learned, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for this was your good pleasure. 22 ”All things have been committed to me by my Father. No one knows who the Son is except the Father, and no one knows who the Father is except the Son and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal him.”
  19. Lk 11:13 [Jesus] “If you then, though you are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father in heaven give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him!” [11:14, Jesus was driving out a demon that was mute.]
  20. Lk 12:8-12 [Jesus] “I tell you, whoever acknowledges me before men, the Son of Man will also acknowledge him before the angels of God. But he who disowns me before men will be disowned before the angels of God. And everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but anyone who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven. “When you are brought before synagogues, rulers and authorities, do not worry about how you will defend yourselves or what you will say,
  21. Jn 1:32-34 Then John gave this testimony: “I saw the Spirit come down from heaven as a dove and remain on him. I would not have known him, except that the one [God?] who sent me to baptize with water told me, ‘The man on whom you see the Spirit come down and remain is he who will baptize with the Holy Spirit.’ I have seen and I testify that this is the Son of God.”
  22. Jn 3:5-6 Jesus answered, “I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit.
  23. Jn 3:34-36 For the one whom God has sent speaks the words of God, for God gives the Spirit without limit. The Father loves the Son and has placed everything in his hands. Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life, but whoever rejects the Son will not see life, for God’s wrath remains on him.
  24. Jn 6:61-65 Aware that his disciples were grumbling about this, Jesus said to them, “Does this offend you? What if you see the Son of Man ascend to where he was before! The Spirit gives life; the flesh counts for nothing. The words I have spoken to you are spirit and they are life. Yet there are some of you who do not believe.” For Jesus had known from the beginning which of them did not believe and who would betray him. He went on to say, “This is why I told you that no one can come to me unless the Father has enabled him.”
  25. Jn 14:16-17 [Jesus] “And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Counselor to be with you forever—the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you.”


[1] The phrase was popularized by Arthur W. Wainwright, The Trinity in the New Testament (London: SPCK, 1962) 3-14, 235-67. Wainwright initiates his work, pp. 7-13, with the debate between Emil Brunner, who argued that the struggle regarding Trinitarian thought did not begin in the NT and Karl Barth who insisted that in some sense it did, i.e., that there is no sharp division between reflection (theology) and proclamation (kerygma).

[2] Dr. J. Scott Horrel, “Abundant Trinitarian passages of the New Testament, Theological Method, and Nicene Implications.” DTS, Fall, 2014.

[3] Listings of NT passages are discussed in Arthur W. Wainwright, The Trinity in the New Testament (London: SPCK, 1962) 237-47, Peter Toon, Our Triune God: A Biblical Portrayal of the Trinity (Wheaton IL: Victor Books, 1996) 133-229, Robert Letham, The Holy Trinity: In Scripture, History, Theology, and Worship (Phillipsburg NJ: P & R, 204) 52-85, Brian Edgar, The Message of the Trinity: Life in God (Downers Grove IL: InterVarsity Press, 2004), Fisher Humphries’ “The Revelation of the Trinity,” Perspectives in Religious Studies 33:3 (Fall 2006) 285-304, and Allan Coppedge, The God Who Is Triune: Revisioning the Christian Doctrine of God (Downers Grove IL: InterVarsity Press, 2007) 23-78.

[4] Additional references to the Trinity are possible in Lk 11:19-20; Jn 4:23-26; Ac 8:35-39; 9:17-20; 16:6-10; Eph 6:17-24; and Rev 19:10.

[5] Dr. J. Scott Horrel, “Abundant Trinitarian passages of the New Testament, Theological Method, and Nicene Implications.” DTS, Fall, 2014.