The Teaching of Christ Concerning the Holy Spirit

This post continues the series on “The Holy Spirit in the Gospels.” We have just concluded looking at how the Spirit impacted the ministry of Christ, so we must now turn our attention to what our Lord Jesus spoke of this Helper, Comforter, and Counselor. We remind ourselves that before Christ left this earth, He offered the disciples several words of encouragement about the coming Spirit. This post will provide an introduction to the next section of the overall paper, and will foreshadow what is to come.


 

The Teaching of Christ Concerning the Holy Spirit

The Gospels record Christ teaching about the Spirit in a variety of different ways. As Jesus lived in the Spirit and the Spirit was active in Jesus’ life and ministry, Jesus knew that He must prepare His disciples for his departure. Speaking to the disciples and people of that time, and with future believers in mind, the Gospels record Jesus speaking at lengths about the Spirit: who He is, what He will do, how He will come, why He will come, and when He will come. Jesus taught what it means to live in the Spirit, which includes: the Spirit will indwell them (John 14:17), blasphemy against the Spirit is unpardonable (Matt 12:31-32; Mark 3:29-30; Luke 12:10), the Spirit will guide them into all truth (John 16:12-15), and provide wisdom and words (Matt 10:20; Mark 13:11; John 14:15-16; 16:16). As Jesus ministered in the Spirit, it was important that they knew what it meant to minister in the Spirit, such as: Jesus promised the Spirit to the disciples and all who believe (Matt 10:20; Mark 13:11; Luke 11:13; 12:12; John 7:37-39; 14:15-17, 26), the Sprit would empower, teach and guide believers to preach the Gospel (Matt 28:19; Luke 24:48-49; John 14:26; 15:2-27; 16:13-15; 20:22), open their minds to being born in the Spirit (John 3:5-6, 8). Finally, Jesus knew that in order to live and minister in the Spirit, they must know the Spirit is worthy of worship since He is God, and the Spirit would facilitate true worship to the Father (John 4:23-24). Jesus said it was better that He go and the Spirit would come (John 16:7) since the Spirit is the “Counselor” (John 14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7) so that the Spirit would remind the believer of the words of Christ and have communion with the Godhead (John 4:23-24).

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More Scriptural passages regarding the Trinity

Today, we continue looking at biblical references about the Trinity, focusing on numbers 76-100. This will focus on Scriptural passages found in Ephesians 3 through 2 Peter. Again, these are passages that exhibit Trinitarian references or a unit of thought. Some exegetes may divide up some of these passages, but are kept together for a unit of thought purpose. However, there are also certain passages that are appropriate to divide (Ac 20:21-24, 27-28). It is all subjective and up to the reader.

The main point of this whole exercise is to show that the Persons of the Godhead are spoken about in certain blocks of Scripture reinforcing a Trinitarian belief. (For more information on this, please refer back to the original post that will give a little more background).

  1. Eph 3:2-5 Surely you have heard about the administration of God’s grace that was given to me for you, that is, the mystery made known to me by revelation, as I have already written briefly. In reading this, then, you will be able to understand my insight into the mystery of Christ, which was not made known to men in other generations as it has now been revealed by the Spirit to God’s holy apostles and prophets.
  2. Eph 3:10-17 His intent was that now, through the church, the manifold wisdom of God should be made known to the rulers and authorities in the heavenly realms, according to his eternal purpose which he accomplished in Christ Jesus our Lord. In him and through faith in him we may approach God with freedom and confidence. I ask you, therefore, not to be discouraged because of my sufferings for you, which are your glory. For this reason I kneel before the Father, from whom his whole family in heaven and on earth derives its name. I pray that out of his glorious riches he may strengthen you with power through his Spirit in your inner being, so that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith.
  3. Eph 4:3-6 Make every effort to keep the unity of the Spirit through the bond of peace. There is one body and one Spirit—just as you were called to one hope when you were called—one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all.
  4. Eph 4:30-32 And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, with whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. Get rid of all bitterness, rage and anger, brawling and slander, along with every form of malice. Be kind and compassionate to one another, forgiving each other, just as in Christ God forgave you.
  5. Eph 5:18-20 Do not get drunk on wine, which leads to debauchery. Instead, be filled with the Spirit. Speak to one another with psalms, hymns and spiritual songs. Sing and make music in your heart to the Lord, always giving thanks to God the Father for everything, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
  6. Php 2:1-6 If you have any encouragement from being united with Christ, if any comfort from his love, if any fellowship with the Spirit, if any tenderness and compassion, then make my joy complete by being like-minded, having the same love, being one in spirit and purpose. Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit, but in humility consider others better than yourselves. Each of you should look not only to your own interests, but also to the interests of others. Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus: Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped,
  7. Php 3:1-3 Finally, my brothers, rejoice in the Lord! [cf.2:29-30]… For it is we who are the circumcision, we who worship by the Spirit of God, who glory in Christ Jesus, and who put no confidence in the flesh—
  8. Col 1:6-8 All over the world this gospel is bearing fruit and growing, just as it has been doing among you since the day you heard it and understood God’s grace in all its truth. You learned it from Epaphras, our dear fellow servant, who is a faithful minister of Christ on our behalf, and who also told us of your love in the Spirit.
  9. 1Th 1:1-6 Paul, Silas and Timothy, To the church of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace and peace to you. We always thank God for all of you, mentioning you in our prayers. We continually remember before our God and Father your work produced by faith, your labor prompted by love, and your endurance inspired by hope in our Lord Jesus Christ. For we know, brothers loved by God, that he has chosen you, because our gospel came to you not simply with words, but also with power, with the Holy Spirit and with deep conviction. You know how we lived among you for your sake. You became imitators of us and of the Lord; in spite of severe suffering, you welcomed the message with the joy given by the Holy Spirit.
  10. 1Th 4:2-8 For you know what instructions we gave you by the authority of the Lord Jesus. It is God’s will that you should be sanctified: that you should avoid sexual immorality; that each of you should learn to control his own body in a way that is holy and honorable, not in passionate lust like the heathen, who do not know God; and that in this matter no one should wrong his brother or take advantage of him. The Lord will punish men for all such sins, as we have already told you and warned you. For God did not call us to be impure, but to live a holy life. Therefore, he who rejects this instruction does not reject man but God, who gives you his Holy Spirit.
  11. 1Th 5:18-23 give thanks in all circumstances, for this is God’s will for you in Christ Jesus. Do not put out the Spirit’s fire; do not treat prophecies with contempt. Test everything. Hold on to the good. Avoid every kind of evil. May God himself, the God of peace, sanctify you through and through. May your whole spirit, soul and body be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
  12. 2Th 2:13-14 But we ought always to thank God for you, brothers loved by the Lord, because from the beginning God chose you to be saved through the sanctifying work of the Spirit and through belief in the truth. He called you to this through our gospel, that you might share in the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.
  13. 1Ti 3:14-4:1 Although I hope to come to you soon, I am writing you these instructions so that, if I am delayed, you will know how people ought to conduct themselves in God’s household, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and foundation of the truth. Beyond all question, the mystery of godliness is great: He appeared in a body, was vindicated by the Spirit, was seen by angels, was preached among the nations, was believed on in the world, was taken up in glory. The Spirit clearly says that in later times some will abandon the faith and follow deceiving spirits and things taught by demons.
  14. 2Ti 1:7-14 For God did not give us a spirit of timidity, but a spirit of power, of love and of self-discipline. So do not be ashamed to testify about our Lord, or ashamed of me his prisoner. But join with me in suffering for the gospel, by the power of God, who has saved us and called us to a holy life—not because of anything we have done but because of his own purpose and grace. This grace was given us in Christ Jesus before the beginning of time, but it has now been revealed through the appearing of our Savior, Christ Jesus, who has destroyed death and has brought life and immortality to light through the gospel. And of this gospel I was appointed a herald and an apostle and a teacher. That is why I am suffering as I am. Yet I am not ashamed, because I know whom I have believed, and am convinced that he is able to guard what I have entrusted to him for that day. What you heard from me, keep as the pattern of sound teaching, with faith and love in Christ Jesus. Guard the good deposit that was entrusted to you—guard it with the help of the Holy Spirit who lives in us.
  1. Tit 3:4-6 But when the kindness and love of God our Savior appeared, he saved us, not because of righteous things we had done, but because of his mercy. He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit, whom he poured out on us generously through Jesus Christ our Savior,
  2. Heb 2:3-4 how shall we escape if we ignore such a great salvation? This salvation, which was first announced by the Lord, was confirmed to us by those who heard him. God also testified to it by signs, wonders and various miracles, and gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will.
  3. Heb 3:4-7 For every house is built by someone, but God is the builder of everything. Moses was faithful as a servant in all God’s house, testifying to what would be said in the future. But Christ is faithful as a son over God’s house. And we are his house, if we hold on to our courage and the hope of which we boast. So, as the Holy Spirit says: “Today, if you hear his voice,
  1. Heb 6:4-6 It is impossible for those who have once been enlightened, who have tasted the heavenly gift, who have shared in the Holy Spirit, who have tasted the goodness of the word of God and the powers of the coming age, if they fall away, to be brought back to repentance, because to their loss they are crucifying the Son of God all over again and subjecting him to public disgrace.
  2. Heb 9:14 How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God!
  3. Heb 10:12-15 But when this priest had offered for all time one sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God. Since that time he waits for his enemies to be made his footstool, because by one sacrifice he has made perfect forever those who are being made holy. The Holy Spirit also testifies to us about this.
  4. Heb 10:29-31 How much more severely do you think a man deserves to be punished who has trampled the Son of God under foot, who has treated as an unholy thing the blood of the covenant that sanctified him, and who has insulted the Spirit of grace? For we know him who said, “It is mine to avenge; I will repay,” and again, “The Lord will judge his people.” It is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.
  5. 1Pe 1:2 who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood:
  6. 1Pe 3:18 For Christ died for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, to bring you to God. He was put to death in the body but made alive by the Spirit,
  7. 1Pe 4:13-16 But rejoice that you participate in the sufferings of Christ, so that you may be overjoyed when his glory is revealed. If you are insulted because of the name of Christ, you are blessed, for the Spirit of glory and of God rests on you. If you suffer, it should not be as a murderer or thief or any other kind of criminal, or even as a meddler. However, if you suffer as a Christian, do not be ashamed, but praise God that you bear that name.
  8. 2Pe 1:16-21 We did not follow cleverly invented stories when we told you about the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty. For he received honor and glory from God the Father when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, saying, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.” We ourselves heard this voice that came from heaven when we were with him on the sacred mountain. And we have the word of the prophets made more certain, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts. Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation. For prophecy never had its origin in the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.

Summary of the Main People in Genesis through Judges

To finish up our study of the Pentateuch, I would like to provide a list of the key people, places, events, dates and background that are found in the Pentateuch and Joshua and Judges. These are the important items that happen in these books. Hopefully, this brief study will provide a small help in knowing where something occurred in the Bible and be provided a very brief summary of that person, event, or date. Obviously, I cannot be comprehensive with every person like Moses or Adam, as (1) that would be a giant book, (2) there are already many great books out there on them, and (3) this is a brief high level overview. This is just scratching the surface on some of these items and you will probably see that there are many details that are not included for sake of time and space.

Really, the purpose of these posts will be to help bring some stories back to mind and provide any help in the form of study. Today, we will focus on the main characters that are seen from Genesis through Judges.

Adam-the first man, formed from the earth’s dust to be a living being to inhabit the earth that God furnished. God placed mankind in the Garden of Eden to cultivate and keep it, commanding him to eat the fruit of the trees freely, but promising death if he should eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge, Gen 1-5

Eve-the first woman, a completer for Adam made by God; one that corresponded to his nature, taken from his own body to become one with him, his wife. Deceived by the serpent and failing to recognize the goodness of God and His commandment, disobeyed the command and ate of the fruit giving it to Adam as well Gen 2-4

Cain-son of Adam & Eve, twin to Abel, brother to Seth. Cain murdered his brother Abel because of religious envy. God forced Cain to acknowledge his act, driving him from the ground, making him a wandered in the earth though protecting him from blood vengeance Gen 4 . The line through which secular culture is advanced (Handbook on the Pentateuch, p 60-61). Tiller of the fields

Abel-son of Adam & Eve, twin to Cain, brother to Seth. Murdered by his brother Cain. Gen 4. Keeper of the flocks

Seth-son of Adam & Eve, brother to Cain & Abel. It is through the line of Seth that God’s plan of redemption will move, Gen 4-5 (Handbook on the Pentateuch, p 61).

Enoch-father of Methuselah, lived 365 years, walked faithfully with God and then was no more because God took him away, Gen 5

Noah-walked with God, escaped the purifying wrath of God to become the new head of mankind, worshipping in the day of salvation in the gift of covenant under God’s blessing though sin was still at work. After inspecting the corruption and violence in the earth, God told Noah of His plan for a life destroying flood and that He would deliver Noah and his family with a remnant of animal life. Noah was directed by God to build an ark to carry them through the flood. Gen 6-9

Shem-son of Noah, populated the earth following the Flood. Sons of Shem included the descendants of Aram and Arphaxad, the father of all the sons of Eber (the line through which the blessing flowed); lived in the eastern hill country, Gen 10-11

Ham-son of Noah, populated the earth following the Flood. Ham broke loyalty with his father Noah when Noah became drunk, and then cursed Ham’s son Canaan. Sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan from whom the lands of Arabia, including the Assyrians, Africa, and Canaan were settled, Gen 10-11

Japheth-son of Noah, populated the earth following the Flood. Sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras and were the peoples who spread into the maritime territories of the earth, Gen 10-11

Abraham-a man of faith, receives God’s covenant promises and models for his heirs covenant loyalty to God in the face of threats to the fulfillment of the promises; fearful Abraham, seeks to aid God’s promises by fathering a son through Hagar causing division in the family. God grants Abraham a son through his wife Sarah and she delivers Isaac, the line through which God will fulfill his promise of multitudes of offspring, Gen 11-25

Sarah-Abraham’s wife; despite her unbelief in God’s provision of a child, she gives birth to a son, Gen 11-25

Lot-relative of Abraham, Lot fathers nations, as does Abraham, but through the breach of family to nations who themselves will breach family loyalty, Gen 13, 18-19

Hagar-Sarah’s maid, mother of Ishmael, fathered by Abraham, Gen 16

Ishmael-son of Hagar and Abraham; under God’s blessing, becomes a nation with twelve tribes, fulfilling God’s promise that he would live in defiance of all his relatives, Gen 16, 21

Abimelech-Philistine king whom God controls his actions in order to protect Abraham, Gen 20 Abraham lied to him that sarah was his sister and not his wife. Abimelech spoke to God and God spared him. Abimelech gave Abraham all sorts of servants and gifts. He was healed and his wife was able to have children as Abraham prayed for him. Covenant with Abraham over a well that Abraham dug and gave 7 lambs for

Isaac-son of Abraham and Sarah; the line through which God will fulfill His promise of multitudes of offspring. In contrast to Abraham, Isaac fails to lead his sons to respect God’s gift of the blessing. God provides Isaac with twin offspring and Isaac chooses to Jacob, the younger to receive the blessing. The Lord calls Isaac to the land of Canaan, renewing the Abrahamic promises to bless him and make him a blessing to all the earth because of Abraham’s obedience, though Isaac endangered the family by following the bad example of Abraham (lying about her being his sister) at Gerar, Gen 25- God fulfills His plan of blessing Isaac even through the unbelief and disobedience of the family.

Rebekah-wife of Isaac; Rebekah schemes with Jacob to get the blessing for Jacob against Isaac and Esau. Was also barren but Isaac prayed and she gave birth, she was 60 years old when she gave birth.

Jacob-son of Isaac and Rebekah, younger brother of Esau, husband of Rachel and Leah. Jacob exhibits unbelieving faith in the covenant promises, and seeks to grasp God’s promise by buying the birthright from Esau who despised his birthright. Jacob’s sin fulfills the plan of God to bless Jacob, but requires the discipline of flight to protect himself from his wronged brother, but also to find a proper wife.

Esau-son of Isaac and Rebekah, older brother of Jacob. Esau despised and sold his birthright to his younger brother Jacob. Also called Edom because of the red stew.

Laban-uncle of Jacob, father of Rachel and Leah. Laban allowed Jacob to live with him in Paddan Aram, for Jacob’s compensation for working for him, Laban offered his daughter Rachel in marriage. Laban deceived Jacob and gave him Leah as wife first because she was the older daughter. Jacob loved Rachel however and worked for Laban another 7 years so that he might make Rachel his wife. After Jacob’s family increases, Laban’s attitude toward Jacob changes—Jacob’s household and flocks increase, he requests leave, flees from Laban, who then pursues him.

Rachel-wife of Jacob; mother of Joseph and Benjamin. Barren; stole Labans idols.

Leah-wife of Jacob; mother of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah

Reuben-firstborn of Jacob and Leah; disqualified himself from leadership of the family by committing incest and slept with Jacob’s concubine Bilhah Gen 35

Simeon-second son of Jacob and Leah; sought revenge for Dinah’s rape by killing every male in the city in which they lived

Levi-third son of Jacob and Leah; sought revenge for Dinah’s rape by killing every male in the city in which they lived

Judah-fourth son of Jacob and Leah

Joseph-first son of Jacob and Rachel; Jacob’s favorite son and choice to manage the family. Joseph experiences two dreams that indicate that he will lead their family, inciting jealousy in his 11 brothers. They sell him into slavery, telling Jacob that he is dead. Joseph thrives in Egypt, works in the household of Potiphar, but is then put into prison after claims that he seduced Potiphar’s wife. Joseph through the power of the Lord tells the meanings behind dreams of fellow prisoners, and after two years is connected to Pharaoh to interpret his dreams. Pharaoh puts Joseph in charge of Egypt. During famine, Joseph has the opportunity to reconcile with his brothers and father who visit Egypt to purchase grain for their family, Gen 37-50.

Benjamin-second son of Jacob and Rachel; God completes His promise to Jacob by giving him twelve sons, ending with Benjamin’s birth and the death of Rachel, Gen 35.

Dinah-daughter of Jacob and Leah; experienced rape at the hand of Shechem a Hivite, who then requested that Dinah become his wife. Shechem and his father Hamor spoke to Jacob and his sons about this request and agreed that Dinah might be given to Shechem in marriage if the men of the region become circumcised. The men agreed, and were circumcised, three days after, Simeon and Levi sought revenge for the rape of their sister and killed all the males in the region Gen 34

Tamar-daughter-in-law of Judah; Tamar was married to Judah’s son Er, who was wicked in the sight of the Lord and was killed. Tamar became pregnant through her father-in-law when he refused to give his other son Shelah to her as husband, Gen 38.

Potiphar-when Joseph was sold into slavery, Potiphar purchased Joseph from the Ishmaelites. Joseph was blessed by the Lord and Potiphar saw this, and elevated him to second in command of his household, Gen 39.

The Cupbearer-offended Pharaoh and was put into the same prison as Joseph; Joseph was assigned to attend to the cupbearer. The Cupbearer experienced a dream in which a vine grew in front of him, and it grew three branches. On the vine, the branches grew into clusters of grapes which he squeezed into the cup of Pharaoh. Joseph interpreted his dream through the power of the Lord to mean that in three days, the Cupbearer would be restored to his prior position. Once Joseph interpreted the dream, he asked that the Cupbearer remember him to Pharaoh so that he might be released from prison. Just as Joseph had interpreted the dream, so it came to be; however the Cupbearer did not remember him to Pharaoh, Gen 40.

The Baker-offended Pharaoh and was put into the same prison as Joseph; Joseph was assigned to attend to the baker. The Baker experienced a dream in which three baskets of bread were on his head, and on the top basket, all types of baked goods were there for Pharaoh, but the birds were eating the bread out of the basket. Joseph interpreted his dream through the power of the Lord to mean that in three days, the Baker would be killed by Pharaoh. Just as Joseph had interpreted the dream, so it came to be, Gen 40.

Manasseh-firstborn son of Joseph, Gen 48

Ephraim-second son of Joseph; received blessing from Jacob (Israel) even though he was the younger son, Gen 48.

Moses-a Levite through whom which God uses to deliver Israel. God uses many mighty signs and wonders, showing that He is God, causing Moses to trust in Him.

Miriam-sister of Moses, she hid among the reeds to watch what would happen to the papyrus basket that Moses was placed in as an infant. Miriam watched as the basket floated to Pharaoh’s daughter and offered to provide her with a wet nurse (her mother), Ex 2.

Pharaoh’s daughter-bathing in the Nile, found the papyrus basket in which the infant Moses was floating. Pharaoh’s daughter took Moses and he became her son, Ex 2.

Jethro-Moses’ father-in-law, a Midianite priest, Zipporah is daughter

Aaron-brother of Moses, mouthpiece of Moses through which Israel is delivered.

Joshua-Moses successor as leader of Israel, Josh 1-18

Bezalel-chief craftsman and overseer (along with Oholiab) of the construction/building of the Tabernacle, Ex 31, 33

Nadab-son of Aaron, attempted to worship Yahweh by his own device (along with Abihu) by offering unauthorized fire before the Lord contrary to His command and was destroyed by God with holy fire from the sanctuary, Lev 10

Abihu-son of Aaron, attempted to worship Yahweh by his own device (along with Nadab) by offering unauthorized fire before the Lord contrary to His command and was destroyed by God with holy fire from the sanctuary, Lev 10

Caleb-one of the twelve spies sent into Canaan, from the tribe of Judah. Upon the spies’ return from their exploration, contrary to the other 11 spies, Caleb encouraged Israel to invade that they might overcome the land (the other spies brought back fruit telling that the land was good, but were intimidated by the inhabitants and well fortified cities), Num 13. Caleb, for his faith in Yahweh’s provision, was spared during a plague and was allowed to enter Canaan, Deut 1

Korah-along with Dathan and Abiram led Israel to rebel against Moses and Aaron, but Yahweh vindicated their leadership by great judgments against them and all Israel. Moses warned them that Yahweh would show the next day who should lead Israel, who was holy, by choosing the censer of the man He honored. Moses rebuked Korah for presumption beyond the good gifts of God to Levi, seeking the priesthood also. Moses interceded with Yahweh against them, commanding them to be present the next day bringing a fire pan and censer, which they did along with 250 other community leaders. Yahweh commanded Moses, Aaron, and Israel to separate themselves as a result of Moses’ intercession. The power of the Lord was shown then who should leave Israel when the earth was opened and swallowed alive Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, along with the 250 men and their households validating Moses’ leadership, Num 16

Balak-king of Moab, fearing Israel, sent for Balaam, God’s prophet to curse Israel. Balaam sternly warned by Yahweh, reminded Balak that he could speak only what Yahweh had said, Num 22-24

Balaam-a prophet, hired by Balak to curse Israel; Balaam prophetically proclaimed Yahweh’s blessing on Israel. The Balaam narrative shows that God had begun to fulfill His promise to Abraham and that his seed had become a “great nation”. It showed that God was about to fulfill His promise to give Abraham’s seed the land. The narrative also shows that the curses of the nations could not thwart God’s promise to bless the nation of Israel, Num 22-24

Rahab-prostitute of Jericho who hid spies sent from Israel and lied to the king, urging him to send after them to the Jordan, leaving him to think they had fled. Rahab hid the spies under the flax on the room. Knowledge of God and all that He had done for Israel had come to Rahab, her response showed her faithfulness to God and she requested that God honor her and her family when Israel came to take Jericho. The spies gave an oath and escaped via a cord through a window; it was through the sign of the cord that Israel would know to not destroy Rahab’s house, Josh 2

Achan-upon the defeat of Jericho, Israel was instructed by the Lord to keep away from all “devoted things” and that the silver, gold, bronze, and iron from the city were to be put into the Lord’s treasury. Achan brought about Yahweh’s wrath against the people when he stole some of the things from Jericho, Josh 7

Eleazar-son of Aaron, priest during the time of Joshua’s leadership of Israel, Josh 14

Deborah-prophetess, judged Israel in Ephraim to settle disputes of the Israelites; worked alongside Barak, Jud 4

Barak-Recipient of the Lord’s command through Deborah to take 10,000 men of Naphtali and Zebulun to Mt. Tabor to defeat Sisera’s army at Kishon. Barak displayed cowardice and refused to carry out the Lord’s command unless Deborah would go with him. Deborah agreed to go, however Barak lost honor because Yahweh would kill Sisera by the hands of a woman (Jael), Jud 4

Gideon-because of Israel’s rebellion, they were given in to the hands of the Midianites. Yahweh commission Gideon to deliver Israel, by returning to Yahweh worship in Ophrah. Upon being commissioned by God, Gideon requests that a sign be performed to confirm that he was hearing from God. Gideon prepared unleavened bread and boiled goat that were miraculously consumed in fire on a rock. Gideon built an altar to the Lord at that place and named it Ophrah, Jud 6 (Judges Notes, p 17). Israel battles against Midian and Gideon displays wavering faith in God’s deliverance by asking for additional signs (a dewy fleece on dry ground and the next day a dry fleece on dewy ground). God uses a dream to reveal to Gideon that He will deliver Israel, Jud 6-7

Jephthah-was given the direct promise of Yahweh that victory will come over the Ammonites, but he will try to secure the victory by a foolish and unnecessary oath. The judgeship of Jephthat is characterized by ignorance and negligence of divine things and his manipulation of Yahweh, Jud 10-11

Samson-The judgeship of Samson is driven by his appetites, negligent of his Nazirite vow, selfish and uncaring about the face of his people, Jud 12-16.

Delilah-the person responsible for the downfall of Samson’s strength. Delilah seduced Samson to tell her the secret sources of his strength for a bag of silver from the Philistines, Jud 16

Dividing the Book of Leviticus

In this post, we will continue to look at the different divisions within the book of Leviticus. This will describe my viewpoints as to why book can be divided into the various sections. This will make more sense when I post the full synthetic chart in the next post. This post is to provide reasoning and research as to why I have divided the book as such and what other commentators or authors have said.

The reasoning for dividing the third section entitled, “Laws of Purity”, between chapters eleven and fifteen are because this section mainly focuses on what God describes as clean and unclean. This is God’s call for the Israelites to be pure before Him with God detailing the cleanliness of creatures, purification after childbirth and skin infections.

The fourth section details the “Day of Atonement”, following the NAC and NBD, I choose to not include the Day of Atonement in the “Law of Purity” section because it seems to require its own section based on the information.[1] While it does talk about purity and cleanliness from sin in the atonement sacrifices, the chapter that is rich with information differs just enough from the previous section that it did not fit. At the same time, I did not feel it belonged in the next section because that focuses on holiness and the Holiness Code that it appeared to have a more singular focus on just the Day of Atonement.

The Laws of Holiness,” which is the fifth section, covers the chapters from the Holiness Code (17) to the Sabbath year and Year of Jubilee (25). The main sources I relied on for this section break was the NAC and the Holman Concise Bible Commentary which did not include chapter 26 in this section.[2] This division occurs mainly because the theme of this section is for the people of Israel to be holy just as God is holy.

The sixth section, “Blessing and Curse,” focuses mainly on obedience and the consequences of Israel’s actions. Commentaries seem to be split on whether this section stands alone or is part of the previous section. I choose to separate it as its own division since its main focus is obedience and the blessings or curses the people will receive for their disobedience. That is not to say that obedience is not part of holy living, but to include it in the previous section does not appear to do this chapter justice.

Similarly to the previous section, the final section, “The Law of vows and Tithes,” does not fit with the previous chapter. This section mainly focuses on the vows and tithes that the people do in regards a variety of different objects. This section introduces regulations that were not previously mentioned or suggested in Leviticus. “It is a simple fact that the laws in Lev. 27 are fundamentally different from the subject matter in the chapters that precede it, for these laws cover voluntary things.”[3] Since this section is so different from the previous and the rest of the book, I kept it separate.

The book of Leviticus can be divided up into different ways with some differing over the divisions of chapters 16 and 26, but overall Leviticus speaks to the reader to follow the Lord and be holy. While some may agree or disagree with these divisions, from my research, it appears to me that this is a logical way of outlining the book of Leviticus.

[1] Rooker,  Leviticus 79. Gispen, “Leviticus, Book of” 683.

[2] Merrill, The Pentateuch 37.

[3] Allen P. Ross, Holiness to the Lord: A Guide to the Exposition of the Book of Leviticus (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002) 487.

Bibliography

Gispen, W. H. “Leviticus, Book Of.” Edited by D. R. W. Wood, I. H. Marshall, A. R. Millard, J. I. Packer, and D. J. Wiseman. New Bible Dictionary. Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996.

Hamilton, Victor P. Handbook on the Pentateuch: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1982.

Ross, Allen P. Holiness to the Lord: A Guide to the Exposition of the Book of Leviticus. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 2002.

Merrill, Eugene H. “The Pentateuch.” In Holman Concise Bible Commentary, edited by David S. Dockery. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1998.

Rooker, Mark F. Leviticus. Vol. 3A. The New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000.

Walvoord, John F., and Roy B. Zuck, Dallas Theological Seminary. The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985.

Leviticus: A deeper look

In the next few posts, we will take a deeper look into the book of Leviticus. This exercise will take the outline that was discussed in a previous post and develop a further breakdown of the book. The synthetic chart is used to divide the book into sections that seem to be similar. This grouping will be helpful in the overall study of the book as well as seeing what the author’s focus is.

There is probably not that much attention paid to Leviticus but as one dives deeper into the study of this book, the beauty and majesty of God can be seen. Leviticus displays God’s holiness and His desire for His children to be holy. He will take measures to protect His holiness from the unholy Israelites.

SYNTHETIC CHART OF LEVITICUS

Leviticus expresses God’s holiness and His requirements for Israel’s holiness; it provides guidelines for the means by which God provides atonement for sin through sacrifice. Leviticus, which refers to the “book of priests” or “that which concerns the priests,” provides instructions for Aaron and the priests to keep the people of Israel holy just as God is holy.[1] The overall burden of the Book of Leviticus was to communicate the awesome holiness of Israel’s God and to outline the means by which the people could have access to Him.[2] Leviticus is a literary expression of God’s desire that His holiness be reflected in the life of His covenant people Israel.[3]

The main themes that I noticed throughout the book of Leviticus were holiness, atonement and sacrifice. First, the holiness of God and His call for the Israelites to be holy because God is holy. Next, the offering of sacrifice was the foundational act the Israelites utilized to worship God through obedience to the sacrificial guidelines God provided. Finally, the reconciliation between God and His people by the shedding of sacrificial blood as a substitute so that the Israelites may be declared clean, pure and redeemed.

Major Divisions in Leviticus

The major divisions of Leviticus can be broken down into seven major sections. Some commentaries and authors divide into five or six sections, but in an effort to maintain the integrity of chapter sixteen (The Day of Atonement) and chapter 26, I have decided to let them stand alone instead of grouping them with other chapters. Although, the New Bible Dictionary also suggests dividing the book of Leviticus in this manner.[4]

The first major section focuses on chapters one through seven and is titled, the “Laws Concerning Offerings and Sacrifices.” The reason for this division is because this section mainly focuses on the sacrificial offerings which include the Burnt, Grain, Peace, Sin and Guilt. The rest of this section, Leviticus 6:8-7:38, mainly involve the instructions for Aaron in making the sacrifices. Some have suggested that Leviticus 6:8-7:38 should be included in the next section on priestly ordination, but I agree with Victor Hamilton who states, “Leviticus 6:8-7:38 is not only a supplement to the information given in 1:1-6:7, but also specific instructions to the priests concerning their obligations in the sacrificial ceremonies.”[5]

The second major section, “Ordination of the Priest,” involves chapters eight through ten. The main idea of this section is the ordination of the priesthood and sacrificial system and the consequences for failing to follow God’s holy guidelines. There are three main subsections involved in this, of particular note is the death of Aaron’s sons Nadab and Abihu, who did not follows the requirements that God had laid forth. This section was specifically for Aaron and his sons and did not fit in the sections before or after.

[1] M.F. Rooker, Leviticus, vol. 3A (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000) 23.

[2] Eugene H. Merrill, “The Pentateuch” in D. S. Dockery (Ed.), Holman Concise Bible Commentary (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1998) 37.

[3]F. D. Lindsey, (1985). Leviticus. in J. F. Walvoord & R. B. Zuck (Eds.), The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985) 172.

[4] See W. H. Gispen, “Leviticus, Book Of,” Edited by D. R. W. Wood, I. H. Marshall, A. R. Millard, J. I. Packer, and D. J. Wiseman. New Bible Dictionary (Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996) 683.

[5] Victor P. Hamilton, Handbook of the Pentateuch: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy (Grand Rapids:Baker, 2005)  251.

Key Themes of Leviticus

This is a very brief, high-level overview of the book of Leviticus. It is designed to break down the book into sections that are easily distinguishable and provide a guide for Bible Study and improve memorization of a book.

First, we want to look at exactly what is a theme and provide a definition for it. Next, in order to reinforce our understanding of a ‘theme’ in a Biblical interpretation way, it is beneficial to form a personal definition of the word and how it is important.

As one goes through a book of the Bibles, in this case Leviticus, several themes can typically be seen. Sometimes, this can also be influenced by what is happening in a persons life and those particular ideas keep coming up. For Bible reading, the Spirit will guide and lead the reader and as they are open and listening to His leading, there will be several ideas, themes, topics that will keep coming up. There are times that the Spirit is working in us to get our attention. In general, these themes will make be fairly clear as they keep coming up in the text.

After the themes have been identified, it is good to develop a simple and concise message statement about that book. Essentially, a headline for the book. This simple, short statement will be much easier to remember than trying to think of all the different topics or events that occurred.

Finally, develop a working outline for the book. This helps in teaching Sunday school classes, adult community groups and is very beneficial for personal study. This will help in breaking the book into manageable sections to see the message the Author/author was conveying to the reader. Furthermore, this will bring greater clarity and understanding about the book and its themes.

KEY THEMES TO LEVITICUS

First, using 3-4 sources, define the meaning of “themes” (words repeated). Second, explain the importance of themes for Biblical interpretation.

  1. Theme is defined as “a particular subject or issue that is discussed often or repeatedly” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). It is also defined as “a unifying or dominant idea, motif” (“theme,” Dictionary.com). In reference to biblical interpretation, it is the “The outstanding and abiding truth (theological proposition, big idea) of the passage” (Dr. Bailey’s BE101 class notes Spring 14).

Thus, a personal definition of theme is the main subject, concept or idea that is repeated and therefore conveys the overarching motif.

  1. Themes are an important part of the Biblical interpretation because the reader takes the observations, interpretations, and applications to provide a simple and concise statement and correlate a theme to one’s life. The most reliable guide to knowing and interpreting what a story is about and what the writer wishes the reader to know is through the use of themes by means of the principle of repetition (“How to Read the Bible as Literature and get more out of it”, Leland Ryken, 1984, p. 59). Authors use themes to reinforce the key ideas or concepts that they want the reader to know. Identifying the themes and how they relate to one another in the text is a helpful tool to understanding its meaning.

Third, Identify key themes in Leviticus. (people are not themes.)

  • Holiness – The holiness of God and His call for the Israelites to be holy because God is holy.
  • Sacrifice – The offering of sacrifice was the foundational act the Israelites utilized to worship God through obedience to the sacrificial guidelines God provided.
  • Atonement – The reconciliation between God and His people by the shedding of sacrificial blood as a substitute so that the Israelites may be declared clean, pure and redeemed.

Fourth, formulate a message statement for the whole book. Fifth, develop that message in a concise working outline (with chapter and verses).

  1. Leviticus expresses God’s holiness and His requirements for Israel’s holiness; it provides guidelines for the means by which God provides atonement for sin through sacrifice.
  2. Outline of Leviticus
    1. God provides a way for Israel to approach Him by the atonement of their sins to become holy and pure through sacrifice (Chaps. 1 – 16).
      1. God provides guidelines for the laws of the sacrificial offering system for Israel and the priests to worship and be restored to Him (Chaps. 1 – 7).
      2. The ordination of the priesthood and sacrificial system and the consequences for failing to follow God’s holy guidelines (Chaps. 8 – 10).
      3. God establishes laws of purity and the Day of Atonement to cleanse and atone for Israel’s sins (Chaps. 11 – 16).
    2. God’s requirements for Israel to be holy just as He is holy through the setting forth of conditions for holiness (Chaps. 17 – 27).
      1. The Holiness Code enacted by God to protect His holiness from Israel’s sin and provide ways for Israel to be holy just as God is holy (Chaps. 17 – 25).
      2. The covenant blessings for obedience and curses for disobedience to the requirements of holiness (Chap. 26).
      3. The guidelines for vows and tithes that are to be set apart to the Lord (Chap. 27).

Abiding Truths from John 3:16

The practice of correlating and applying Scripture to one’s life is very important. The Scriptures provide us insight into our lives but more importantly insight about a heavenly father that deeply loves and cares for His children.

In an effort to provide more encouragement and help in the correlation and application process of Scripture, I wanted to provide an extra post on this subject. This is an examination of the classic verse John 3:16. My hope in providing this is to encourage all of you in taking time to not only read the Bible, check off a box and move on with your day. But to examine Scripture, go deep, learn from it, and see what God is teaching and telling you. This may be one option or possibility in trying to discern a principle or truth that God wants you to hear in your current season of life.

 

So let’s begin by looking first at John 3:16

For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.

 

CORRELATION OF JOHN 3:16

Step 1 – Six Interrogative Questions

Who? (Subjects and objects. Who are all the who’s in the passage?)

 God (subject)

 The world (object of “loved”)

 God’s only-begotten Son (object of “gave”)

 Whoever believes in Him (subject of “believes”, “shall not perish” and “have eternal life”).

 

What? (Main verbs. What topics, what actions, what subjects, what issues?)

 God loved the world.

 God gave His only begotten Son.

 Whoever believes in Him.

 Whoever believes in Him shall not perish.

 [Whoever believes in Him shall] have eternal life.

 

When? (Temporal indicators. Any time references?)

 God so loved the world. (past)

 God gave His only begotten Son. (past)

 Whoever believes in Him. (present)

 Whoever believes in Him shall not perish. (future)

 [Whoever believes in Him shall] have eternal life. (future)

 

Where? (Locative indicators.)

 Whoever believes “in Him”. (adverb/locative)

 

Why? (Reasons, causes, purposes/results.)

 “For God so loved” the world. (Gives reason for what was stated in the preceding context.)

 “That He gave…” (Describes the result of God loving the world.)

 “That whoever believes in Him.” (Describes the two results – one positive (“[shall] have”) and one negative (“shall not perish”) – of God giving His only-begotten Son, Jesus.

 

How? (Manner, means, instrumentality.)

 “God so loved” (Describes how, or the manner in which, God loved the world.)

 “Whoever believes in Him” (The means for not perishing is by believing in Him; the means for having eternal life is by believing in Jesus.) (How does one not perish but have eternal life?)

 

In Scripture study, we never stop observing the text. Avoid making comments about the paragraph that weren’t there or summarizing the text in your modern words. Avoid putting words into the mouths of the author. The key is the mechanical layout: the forms, functions, and explanations of the various words, phrases, and clauses. The truths should come from the layout and from Step 1.

 

Step 2 – Here are the truths of John 3:16

Notice that we have created nothing. We let the passage speaks for itself. Observe that the passage answers our questions (Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?) and thus reveals these truths.)

 

 God loved the world. (Whom did God love?)

 God gave His only-begotten Son. (Whom did God give?)

 The manner in which God loved the world was that He gave His only-begotten Son, Jesus. (How did God love the world?)

 The result of loving the world was that God gave His only-begotten Son, Jesus. (Why did God give His Son?)

 God gave Jesus so that those believing in Jesus would not perish.

 God gave Jesus so that those believing in Jesus would have eternal life.

 A result of God giving Jesus is that whoever believes in Him shall not perish.

 A result of God giving Jesus is that whoever believes in Him shall have eternal life. (Why can those who believe in Jesus not perish but have eternal life?)

 The reason God gave His only-begotten Son, Jesus, was because He loved the world.

 The means by which one shall not perish is by believing in Jesus. (How does one not perish?)

 In contrast, the means by which one has eternal life is by believing in Jesus. (How does one have eternal life?)

 

Step 3 – Group truths together based on topics

From Step 2, we discover three ideas: Love, Giving, and Believing. Now, re-organize all of these truths under these three ideas. (NOTE: Use all the truths from Step 2. Don’t change the wording. Use them “as is”. Don’t add new truths. Simply organize the truths you listed in Step 2.)

 

LOVE

 God loved the world.

 The manner in which God loved the world was that He gave His only-begotten Son, Jesus.

 The result of loving the world was that God gave His only-begotten Son, Jesus. (You can place this truth here or under GIVING.)

 The reason God gave His only-begotten Son, Jesus, was because He loved the world.

 

GIVING

 God gave His only-begotten Son.

 The result of loving the world was that God gave His only-begotten Son, Jesus. (You can place this truth here or under LOVE.)

 God gave Jesus so that those believing in Jesus would not perish.

 God gave Jesus so that those believing in Jesus would have eternal life.

 

BELIEVING

 A result of God giving Jesus is that whoever believes in Him shall not perish.

 A result of God giving Jesus is that whoever believes in Him shall have eternal life.

 The means by which one shall not perish is by believing in Jesus.

 In contrast, the means by which one has eternal life is by believing in Jesus.

 

Step 4 – Here, we take away the minor truths from the passage, which leaves the major truths. (NOTE: Don’t change the wording or add new truths at this stage. Simply list the major truths under their respective headings). These are the major points of the passage. All other “truths” support these points; they are subordinate to these “truths.” Notice that these are the main points of the mechanical layout; they are the phrases and clauses closest to the left margin and so highest in the grammatical and syntactical hierarchy. (Remember, no 1st or 2nd person pronouns!)

 

LOVE

 The reason God gave His only-begotten Son, Jesus, was because He loved the world.

 

GIVING

 God gave Jesus so that those believing in Jesus would not perish.

 God gave Jesus so that those believing in Jesus would have eternal life.

 

BELIEVING

 A result of God giving Jesus is that whoever believes in Him shall not perish.

 A result of God giving Jesus is that whoever believes in Him shall have eternal life.

Step 5 – Then, re-word these major truths into 3-5 theological principles. (NOTE: Do not use 1st or 2nd person pronouns. Keep these principles simple: no compound or complex sentences. Use timeless names. Seek to keep these principles at 13 words or less.)

 Christians should love others in a manner that reflects God’s love and sacrifice.

 People should believe in Jesus so that they will not perish.

 People should believe in Jesus so that they can have eternal life.

Step 6 – Finally, represent the main theme or theological proposition in one simple statement from the theological principles above. (This can also be referred to as a timeless principle. See NOTE in Step 5 above for guidelines.)

Because God loved the world, He gave Jesus so that by believing in Jesus believers might not perish but have eternal life.

Theological proposition for personal application: I believe in Jesus, Whom God gave because He loved the world, so that I might not perish but have eternal life.

Credit to Terry Hebert, John Contoveros and the DTS Bible Exposition department

The Practice of Correlation of Scripture

The study of Scripture is not complete until one understands the main point of the passage and its relationship to their lives. Therefore, you will want to derive the main principle or theme from the text.

In order to accomplish this, the five principles of correlation will need to be used. The final result should be 3-5 principles stating timeless theological truths and a simple (non-complex) statement of the main theological proposition of the passage in Philemon 4-7.

The five prohibitions of extracting correlation principles are:

  1. Don’t state as a question
  2. Don’t state negatively
  3. Don’t use names unless they are eternal or everlasting
  4. Avoid compound or complex sentences
  5. Don’t use first or second personal pronouns

The five procedures for extracting correlation principles are:

  1. Ask the six interrogative questions – Answer the six interrogative questions (who, what, where, why, when, how) based on the understanding of the passage you gained from the mechanical layout.
  2. Record all truths, great and small – Record all truths of the passage, great and small. Some will be more demanding than others in terms of personal application.
  3. Combine related truths into statements – Group truths together based on topics (e.g. thanksgiving, prayer).
  4. Concentrate on major truths – Set aside all non-demanding truths and retain those that require personal application.
  5. Reword paragraph into 3-5 simple sentences in principle format – Reword the remaining truths into 3-5 theological principles. Five is the maximum number of acceptable principles.

Next, represent the main theme, or theological proposition, of the text in one simple statement. This theme should clearly express the main point of the passage to anybody who reads it.

First, let’s look at Philemon 1:4-7 to start the process of correlation

4 I thank my God always, making mention of you in my prayers, 5 because I hear of your love and of the faith which you have toward the Lord Jesus and toward all the saints; 6 and I pray that the fellowship of your faith may become effective through the knowledge of every good thing which is in you for Christ’s sake. 7 For I have come to have much joy and comfort in your love, because the hearts of the saints have been refreshed through you, brother. (NASB)

CORRELATION OF PHILEMON 1:4-7 – Please note, this is just one of many variations of truths and applications that one could get out of this passage.

Step 1 – Six Interrogative Questions

  • Who?
    • I (Paul, subject, part of “I thank” and “I pray”)
    • Of you (object of Paul’s mention in prayers, Philemon, “brother”)
    • My God (object of whom Paul thanks)
    • Lord Jesus (object of Philemon’s love and faith)
    • All the saints (A second object of Philemon’s directing his love and faith)
  • What?
    • Because I hear of your love and of the faith which you have (Describe subject/topic of what Paul is hearing.)
    • Because I hear of your love and of the faith which you have (Describe subject/topic of what Paul is hearing.)
    • For I have come to have much joy. (Describes the action that has come to Paul.)
    • For I have come to have much joy and comfort in your love (Describes the subject of what Paul has.)
    • For I have come to have much joy and comfort in your love (Describes the subject of what Paul has.)
    • I thank my God (Describes the action Paul is taking toward God.)
    • Because I hear of your love (Describes the action of Paul in relation to Philemon’s love)
    • And I pray that the fellowship… (Describes Paul’s action because of Philemon’s faith.)
    • [That the fellowship of your faith] may become effective… (Describes the action of faithful fellowship.)
    • For I have come to have much joy and comfort… (Describes the action of Paul in having joy and comfort.)
    • [Because the hearts of the saints] have become refreshed… (Describes the action of the saint’s hearts.)
  • When?
    • I thank my God always. (temporal, present)
    • I pray that the fellowship of your faith may become (future)
    • The hearts of the saints have been (past)
  • Where?
    • Making mention of you “in my prayers”. (Adverb/locative, describes where Paul makes mention.)
    • Of every good thing which is “in you” for Christ’s sake. (Adverb/locative, describes the location of every good thing residing.)
    • For I have come to have much joy and comfort “in your love” (adverb/locative, describes the place of Paul’s joy and comfort.)
  • Why?
    • “Because I hear” of your love (Gives the reason for Paul giving thanks to God.)
    • And I pray that the fellowship of your faith “may become effective” (Describes the purpose and content of Paul’s prayer.)
    • Knowledge of every good thing which is in you “For Christ’s sake.” (Describes the purpose of becoming effective or describes the cause of every good thing which is in you.)
    • For I “have come” to have much joy and comfort (Describes the reason for Paul thanking God.)
    • Because the hearts of the saints “have been refreshed” through you, brother. (Describes the reason Paul has joy and comfort.)
  • How?
    • “Making mention” (Describes how, or the manner of which, Paul thanked God.)
    • “Through the knowledge” (Describes in what way the fellowship of faith becomes effective.)
    • “Through you” (Describes the manner their hearts were refreshed.)

Step 2 – The Truths of the Passage

  • It is good to thank God.
  • The manner in which it is appropriate to thankfully make mention of others is in prayers to God.
  • Thank God always when faith and love of others is heard about.
  • The manner in which faithful fellowship becomes effective is through knowledge of every good thing.
  • The result of brotherly love is the refreshing of other’s hearts.
  • The result of a life exemplifying love and faith can cause others to be thankful.
  • The result of Christ living in a believer is having knowledge of every good thing.
  • The means of having knowledge of every good thing is faithful fellowship with Christ.
  • The reason knowledge becomes effective is by having faith in fellowship with Christ.
  • The result of loving others causes joy and comfort in other believers.
  • The means to refreshing believer’s hearts is by having love.
  • Pray for others faith to become effective
  • It is possible to have knowledge of every good thing because of Christ.
  • The direction of faith and love should be toward Christ and all believers.
  • Thank God for others faith and love in prayer.
  • Love and faith in Christ leads to loving others.
  • A life of love and faith can be an effective example to other believers.
  • A contrast between the physical body and the spiritual is by having Christ in us.
  • Knowledge can be good.
  • A joyful and comforting heart is refreshing.
  • Christianity gives a sense of family and friendship.
  • A person can have a significant and joyful impact on the lives of many through love.
  • Prayer includes thanksgiving.
  • Prayer should include requests for others.
  • Having fellowship with faith can lead to a more effective communion with Christ.
  • Love is joyful, comforting and refreshing to others.

Step 3 – Group Truths Together based on Topics

  • Thanksgiving
    • A life of love and faith can be an effective example to other believers.
    • Love and faith in Christ leads to loving others.
    • Thank God for others faith and love in prayer.
    • The direction of faith and love should be toward Christ and all believers.
    • The result of a life exemplifying love and faith can cause others to be thankful.
    • Thank God always when others faith and love that is heard about.
    • The manner in which it is appropriate to thankfully make mention of others is in prayers to God.
    • It is good to thank God.
    • Prayer includes thanksgiving.
  • Prayer
    • Knowledge can be good.
    • A contrast between the physical body and the spiritual by having Christ in us.
    • It is possible to have knowledge of every good thing because of Christ.
    • Pray for others faith to become effective
    • The reason knowledge becomes effective is by having faith in fellowship with Christ.
    • The means of having knowledge of every good thing is faithful fellowship with Christ.
    • The manner in which faithful fellowship becomes effective is through knowledge of every good thing.
    • Prayer should include requests for others.
    • Having fellowship with faith can lead to a more effective communion with Christ.
  • Refreshment
    • Christianity gives a sense of family and friendship.
    • A person can have a significant and joyful impact on the lives of many through love.
    • A joyful and comforting heart is refreshing.
    • The means to refreshing believer’s hearts is by having love.
    • The result of loving others causes joy and comfort in other believers.
    • The result of brotherly love is the refreshing of others hearts.
    • Love is joyful, comforting and refreshing others.

Step 4 – Major Truths Requiring Personal Application

  • Thanksgiving
    • A life of love and faith can be an effective example to other believers.
    • Love and faith in Christ leads to loving others.
    • The result of a life exemplifying love and faith can cause others to be thankful.
  • Prayer
    • The reason knowledge becomes effective is by having faith in fellowship with Christ.
    • Prayer should include requests for others.
    • Having fellowship with faith can lead to a more effective communion with Christ.
  • Refreshment
    • A joyful and comforting heart is refreshing.
    • The result of brotherly love is the refreshing of others hearts.
    • Love is joyful, comforting and refreshing to others.

Step 5 – Theological Principles

  • Christian love is exemplified by bringing a refreshing comfort and joy to others lives.
  • Be thankful for those who live a life of love and faith.
  • People should have faith in Christ so that they may have a more effective knowledge.
  • Christians should remember that we are all one in Christ
  • Christians should always pray for other believers to show Christ’s love to those around them.

Step 6 – Main Theme or Theological Proposition

Faith in Christ results in a life of love that is thankful and prayerful.

What is Hebrew Parallelism

What is Parallelism? “Parallelism is the use of components in a sentence that are grammatically the same; or similar in their construction, sound, meaning or meter. Parallelism examples are found in literary works as well as in ordinary conversations” (Literarydevices.net). The parallelism can add a sense of increasing importance as one reads a piece of literature. Or think about music and how a piece of music can start low and soft and then build into this vibrant and loud crescendo. It can be used as a way of showing two or more ideas have the same importance or building upon that importance.

“Recognizing parallelism as a poetic feature can sometimes aid in understanding or interpreting a passage.  For example, the use of parallelism usually means that the message of the text is in the larger passage and its overall point or impact rather than individual words or single lines.  Also, specific words that may be ambiguous or used in unusual ways can be clarified or more narrowly defined by seeing them in the context of a parallel structure” (http://www.cresourcei.org/parallel.html). These are mostly found in Psalms and Proverbs. The following post will show Hebrew Parallelism in Psalm 19.

Hebrew Poetry: Parallelism
• Parallelism is the statement and re-statement with art, style, and imagery.
• Parallels exist in concepts, ideas, or thoughts.
• Parallelism is found not only in couplets (two lines), but also in triplets and quatrains (three and four lines), and sometimes in whole stanzas.

The various types of Parallelism are:

SYNONYMOUS
• 2nd line repeats the thought of the 1st line in different words.
• Harmonious
• Complementary
• Watch for inclusio (ABB’A’)
• Possible Markers: “and,” “moreover.”

Psalm 2:4
He who sits in the heavens laughs,
The Lord scoffs at them.

Psalm 2:9
‘You shall break them with a rod of iron,
You shall shatter them like earthenware.’ ”
ANTITHETICAL
• 2nd line affirms the 1st line with the opposite or contrasting statement.
• Markers include adversative conjunctions, e.g. “but,” or negation, e.g. “no,” “neither,” “nor.”
• The B-line states the notion of the A-line in opposite terms.

Psalm 1:6
For the Lord knows the way of the righteous,
But the way of the wicked will perish.

Psalm 4:4
Tremble, and do not sin;
Meditate in your heart upon your bed, and be still.

Psalm 5:5
The boastful shall not stand before Your eyes;
You hate all who do iniquity.

Psalm 6:5
For there is no mention of You in death;
In Sheol who will give You thanks?

Proverbs 10:1b-c
A wise son makes a father glad,
But a foolish son is a grief to his mother.

CLIMACTIC
• 2nd line repeats the 1st line with the exact same words plus a conclusion.
• Climactic parallelism combines synonymous and formal parallelism. The B-line echoes part of the A-line, then adds a phrase that develops the meaning and completes the sense.
Psalm 29:1
Ascribe to the Lord, O sons of the mighty,
Ascribe to the Lord glory and strength.

SYNTHETIC
• 2nd line repeats the thought of the 1st line in different words plus adds a conclusion or completes the sense of the 1st line.
• The relationship is supplementary.
• “Consists only in the similar form of construction, in which word does not answer to word, and sentence to sentence, as equivalent or opposite; but there is a correspondence and equality between different positions in respect to the shape and turn of the whole sentence and of the constructive parts; such as noun answering to noun, verb to verb, member to member, negative to negative, interrogative to interrogative.” (Lowth)
• AKA: chain figure or staircase parallelism

Psalm 95:6
Come, let us worship, and bow down,
Let us kneel before the Lord our Maker.
Here, the Psalmist adds “before the Lord our Maker” to “worship, and bow down.” You could treat this as an ellipsis too. “Let us worship and bow down before the Lord our Maker.” In this case, the parallelism is synonymous.

Psalm 92:9
For, behold, Your enemies, O Lord,
For, behold, Your enemies will perish;
All who do iniquity will be scattered.

Psalm 93:3
The floods have lifted up, O Lord,
The floods have lifted up their voice,
The floods lift up their pounding waves.

Psalm 96:1-2a
Sing to the Lord a new song;
Sing to the Lord, all the earth.
Sing to the Lord, bless His name;

EMBLEMATIC
• A figure of speech is explained in the 2nd line.
• The second line elevates the idea in the 1st line.
• Sometimes you may combine this with the previous four, e.g. emblematic synonymous, emblematic antithetical, emblematic synthetic, or emblematic climatic.
Psalm 42:1
As the deer pants for the water brooks, So my soul pants for You, O God.
(Some might call this Emblematic Synonymous. Others might consider the vocative “O God” as a conclusion and thus, label this as emblematic synthetic. Furthermore, they might consider the “So” as a marker for concluding material to follow. But in this context, “So” serves as a marker of the simile “as.” You could understand it as “in the same way.” I consider this simply Emblematic because the second line elevates the meaning of the first line. The first line is stated as a simile explained or elevated in the second line.)
FORMAL
• 1 idea, thought, sentence, and, thus, 1 statement in meter.
• The couplet forms a complete sentence, idea, or thought without parallelism.

Proverbs 25:18
Like a club and a sword and a sharp arrow
Is a man who bears false witness against his neighbor.

Psalm 52.4
You love all words that devour, O deceitful tongue.
Formal parallelism will confuse you because you will see the vocative of address (O Deceitful Tongue) and consider that separately from the main clause. But “O Deceitful Tongue” is the subject “You” to the verb “love.” It’s not a conclusion. Moreover, and semantically speaking, formal parallelism is non-parallel.

Courtesy of DTS BE101 documentation

A Mechanical Layout of Scripture

 

 

 

Outlining the Bible is the primary means to prepare one to understand the precepts of Scripture in a clear and logical way. This is intended for the Bible student to learn how to examine the text and then draw out what is there in a logical and systematic way. In this way, well refined studies that are personally edifying and impactful can be had for the individual. Outlining will enable one to “exegete” and then write out what the Bible is saying.

“Exegesis” is examining the passage and discovering the principles and ideas that are represented there. This helps prevents someone from adding their own thinking, prejudices, and ideas into the mix that would take away from what God is actually saying. Our responsibility is to observe, study, interpret, correlate, and apply God’s Word from what is there, not add in something that is not there. Also, we should not leave out what we do not want and thus miss what God has clearly described for us. Exegesis is a tool that helps one stay focused and centered upon God and His precepts and then be edified that in turn could edify others.

The Mechanical Layout

What is a mechanical layout? A mechanical layout involves the rewriting of the text in a form that will reveal the grammatical structure of that text.

“There are to marks which characterize the efficient observer:  awareness and thoroughness.  He is not mechanical in his observation.  Rather he is alive to the contents of a passage.  He perceives, he actually sees.  And he sees all the components of a passage.  He takes nothing for granted.  He disciplines himself to absorb consciously the entire unit.  He marks attentively each term, because he knows that any artist who is worthy of the name makes a thoughtful and purposeful selection of terminology.  He also notes carefully the relations and interrelations between terms.  He keeps his eyes open to the smallest as well as the largest connections.  He pays close attention to the general literary form and atmosphere of a passage.  In brief, all the constituents of a Biblical unit become part of the consciousness of the proficient observer.”[1]

The mechanical layout is a phrase-by-phrase chart of the text to show the grammatical relationships. To begin, copy the text phrase by phrase, placing independent clauses (complete subject/predicate constructions) toward the left, with the subordinate phrases more to the right. Usually set the connecting words (and, but, etc.) off to themselves and line up ideas that are equal in weight.

The mechanical layout is made up of the following components:

  1. The main statements of a paragraph (declarations, questions, or commands) should be placed at the extreme left-hand margin of the page.
  2. Each line contains only one main statement and its modifiers, provided — there is not more than one modifier in each clause AND the modifier is not of extraordinary length.
  3. Subordinate clauses and phrases are placed below the lines of the main statement to which they refer. In doing this, think about “Does this statement amplify or expand the statement above it, or does it begin a new thought?”
  1. Two or more modifiers, including subordinate clauses or phrases or plural subjects, are usually written beneath that on which they depend, unless they are so brief they can be retained conveniently in the original order of the text.
  2. Coordinate clauses (clauses connected by and, but, either, or, neither, nor, and for) are generally regarded as containing main statements and are therefore placed as far left as the statement that they are coordinating. NOTE: Lists of names, qualities, or actions should be tabulated in vertical columns for the sake of clarity.

You don’t have to be a grammarian to do this, by the way, but a brush-up on some basics will help, especially if you had to think hard to remember what a subject and a predicate are. A Bible with paragraphs clearly marked will also help keep the chunks bite-sized.

Stripping away all the details on the right side of the page, you can see the main thrust of the text.

[1] Robert Traina, “Methodical Bible Study,” (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1980), 79.

philemon mechanical layout chart