Compare and Contrast Angels and Humans: Part 2

Continuing this brief series on the similarities and differences between angels and humans, this post will focus mainly on what makes up a human and how God created them. This section has a little bit of contrasting between angels and humans, please see the previous post on what makes up an angel. The next post will give a broader overview on the major differences between the two created beings.



Only humans were created in the “image of God” according to His purpose, plan, and good pleasure (Gen 1:26-27). With this privileged position, “humanity was the only part of creation addressed by God,” told to procreate and have dominion over it (Gen 1:28; Ps 8:4-8).[1] Genesis stresses that being made in the image of God is of fundamental importance to what it means to be human (Gen 1:26-28; 5:1-2; 9:6-7).[2] Mankind, created of both material and immaterial substances (Gen 2:7; Ezek 37:6, 8-10, 14), is so adapted to the purposes and functions of the immaterial man that he is not conscious of any separation between the body and the soul.[3]

Like the angels, mankind was also led into disobedience to God by Satan (Gen 3). As a consequence of sin, mankind became a “dying creature” and dead in sin (Eph 2:1)[4]; that spiritual death has been transmitted to all humanity (Rom 3:10-19, 23; 5:12), except Christ (1 John 3:8).[5] Whereas the angels who sinned are awaiting the judgment day (Matt 25:41), humanity is able to be forgiven (2 Cor 5:21). While man was made lower than the angels, the incarnated Christ took this lower place for a short time to conform the believer to His own image (Rom 8:29; Eph 1:3-4) and lift them up to His own sphere far above the angels (Heb 2:6-10).[6] Therefore, redeemed humans will eventually judge the angels (1 Cor 6:3).


[1] Charles Sherlock, “The Doctrine of Humanity,” (Downers Grove, InterVarsity Press, 1996), 36.

[2] Ibid, 31.

[3] Lewis Sperry Chafer, Systematic Theology, vol. 2, (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1993), 146.

[4] Ibid, 149. Also see Dallas Theological Seminary, “Full Doctrinal Statement, Article IV, Man, Created and Fallen,” internet, 2015, accessed February 21, 2015,

[5] Dallas Theological Seminary, “Full Doctrinal Statement, Article IV, Man, Created and Fallen.”

[6] Dallas Theological Seminary, “Full Doctrinal Statement, Article III, Angels, Fallen and Unfallen.”


25 Important Scripture Passages to Remember

There are many times in our lives where we have questions about God, our circumstance, and just the mundane details of life. We start to get tempted with doubts. Questions arise that cause us to think about God’s goodness, His love, His justice. In the midst of the storms of life we feel alone or abandoned. Our hearts our troubled and we begin to question God, His sovereignty and His various attributes. There are times when we are stirred by the Spirit to want to know more about God, more about His name, His attributes, and the Persons of God.

Sometimes, we turn to man to answer these questions. Or we think about them for a little bit, then move on because our attention gets diverted in a different direction (or distraction). Our hearts and spirits hunger for more, but what do we do with this hunger. Do we starve it with the excuses of “not enough time”? Or do we nourish ourselves with a pursuit of God? We may not know why the circumstances are the way they are, whether that is good or bad. We may feel like we are drowning in sea of turmoil. Or we may enjoy floating and swimming in the sea of abundant grace.

God has given us a guide to seek Him. For every believer, there is the Spirit that indwells them and guides them. But for all of the world, He has given us a book of knowledge. A guide to know Him more and better. During those times of struggle and pain, I cannot describe how important it is to me to turn to God and His Word to know Him more. In seeking Him, my heart gets filled. Peace comes. Anxieties get quieter. In the stillness of seeking, a Good Shepherd guides a lost and hurting lamb. The struggles are still there, but so is God as He is always there. 

This post will focus on 25 important Scripture references that teach us about God, including His name, attributes, the Persons of the Godhead, and even our own humanity and design. For those times, when you feel God is silent, when you feel lost, or alone; when your heart breaks; when blessing comes; when doubts arise; when you see a beautiful sunset designed for a glorious purpose, with the clouds painting a brilliant picture; when you have made too little of God or put Him in a box; remember these verses. Write them on your heart, and remember there is a God that is bigger and greater than you could imagine or even fathom to understand the brilliance of His name. Some of my favorite parts of each verse I have put below in red to show what stands out to me. Finally, to break the cardinal rule of Bible Exposition and take a verse out of context, let us be still and know God (Ps 46:10). (Please note, in no way am I saying these are the only verses to remember or that they are the most important in all of the Bible. These verses mainly discuss the personhood and nature of God. They are important and good to know, but they don’t even begin to scratch the surface in what God has revealed about Himself. These are just some key verses to look to in order to know more about God and that is all this post is trying to convey.)

Twenty-Five Key Texts:

Ge 1:1-3: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light.

Ge 1:26-27: 26 Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.”27 So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them.

Ex 3:13-14: Moses said to God, “Suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ Then what shall I tell them?”14 God said to Moses, “I am who I am. This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I am has sent me to you.’”

Ex 20:2-3: I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.“You shall have no other gods before me.

Nu 23:19: God is not human, that he should lie, not a human being, that he should change his mind. Does he speak and then not act? Does he promise and not fulfill?

Jdg 13:17-18: Then Manoah inquired of the angel of the Lord, “What is your name, so that we may honor you when your word comes true?”18 He replied, “Why do you ask my name? It is beyond understanding

1Ki 8:27: “But will God really dwell on earth? The heavens, even the highest heaven, cannot contain you. How much less this temple I have built!

Ps 19:1-4: The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they reveal knowledge. They have no speech, they use no words; no sound is heard from them.Yet their voice goes out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world. In the heavens God has pitched a tent for the sun.

Ps 90:2: Before the mountains were born or you brought forth the whole world, from everlasting to everlasting you are God.

Ps 139:1-4: You have searched me, Lord, and you know me. You know when I sit and when I rise; you perceive my thoughts from afar. You discern my going out and my lying down; you are familiar with all my ways. Before a word is on my tongue you, Lord, know it completely.

Ps 139:15-17: My frame was not hidden from you when I was made in the secret place, when I was woven together in the depths of the earth. 16 Your eyes saw my unformed body; all the days ordained for me were written in your book before one of them came to be. 17 How precious to me are your thoughts, God! How vast is the sum of them!

Isa 6:1-3: In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord, high and exalted, seated on a throne; and the train of his robe filled the temple. Above him were seraphim, each with six wings: With two wings they covered their faces, with two they covered their feet, and with two they were flying. And they were calling to one another:“Holy, holy, holy is the Lord Almighty; the whole earth is full of his glory.”

Isa 45:5-7: I am the Lord, and there is no other; apart from me there is no God. I will strengthen you, though you have not acknowledged me, so that from the rising of the sun to the place of its setting people may know there is none besides me. I am the Lord, and there is no other. I form the light and create darkness, I bring prosperity and create disaster; I, the Lord, do all these things.

Isa 46:10: I make known the end from the beginning, from ancient times, what is still to come. I say, ‘My purpose will stand, and I will do all that I please.’

Jer 23:23-24: “Am I only a God nearby,” declares the Lord, “and not a God far away? 24 Who can hide in secret places so that I cannot see them?” declares the Lord. “Do not I fill heaven and earth?” declares the Lord.

Joel 2:13: Rend your heart and not your garments. Return to the Lord your God, for he is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and abounding in love, and he relents from sending calamity.

Hab 1:13: Your eyes are too pure to look on evil; you cannot tolerate wrongdoing. Why then do you tolerate the treacherous? Why are you silent while the wicked swallow up those more righteous than themselves?

Mal 3:6: “I the Lord do not change. So you, the descendants of Jacob, are not destroyed.

Ac 14:15-18:  “Friends, why are you doing this? We too are only human, like you. We are bringing you good news, telling you to turn from these worthless things to the living God, who made the heavens and the earth and the sea and everything in them. 16 In the past, he let all nations go their own way. 17 Yet he has not left himself without testimony: He has shown kindness by giving you rain from heaven and crops in their seasons; he provides you with plenty of food and fills your hearts with joy.” 18 Even with these words, they had difficulty keeping the crowd from sacrificing to them.

Ac 17:24-25: “The God who made the world and everything in it is the Lord of heaven and earth and does not live in temples built by human hands. 25 And he is not served by human hands, as if he needed anything. Rather, he himself gives everyone life and breath and everything else.

Rom 2:14-15: (Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law. 15 They show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts sometimes accusing them and at other times even defending them.) [You may wonder why this verse is in here. This passage is the proof text for natural law par excellence. Also, The human will is in a state of enmity against God. Even Gentiles, who had not the written law, had that within, which directed them what to do by the light of nature. Conscience is a witness, and first or last will bear witness. As they nature. Conscience is a witness, and first or last will bear witness. As they kept or broke these natural laws and dictates, their consciences either acquitted or condemned them. Nothing speaks more terror to sinners, and more comfort to saints, than that Christ shall be the Judge. The apostle owns that they had not the law, that is, the written law of Moses, and yet intimates that they had, and must have a law, against which they sinned, and so deserved punishment, and which they in part obeyed.]

Rom 11:33: Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable his judgments, and his paths beyond tracing out!

Eph 1:11: In him we were also chosen, having been predestined according to the plan of him who works out everything in conformity with the purpose of his will,

1Ti 6:15-16: which God will bring about in his own time—God, the blessed and only Ruler, the King of kings and Lord of lords16 who alone is immortal and who lives in unapproachable light, whom no one has seen or can see. To him be honor and might forever. Amen.

1Jn 4:16: And so we know and rely on the love God has for us

Rev 15:3-4: and sang the song of God’s servant Moses and of the Lamb: “Great and marvelous are your deeds, Lord God Almighty. Just and true are your ways, King of the nations. Who will not fear you, Lord, and bring glory to your name? For you alone are holy. All nations will come and worship before you, for your righteous acts have been revealed.”

Significant Events in Genesis through Judges

As we near the end of our series on Old Testament history, today we look at the first part of the major events that are described in Genesis through Judges. This is a very brief, high-level overview of just some of the events. The rest will be covered in the next post.


Creation-As His first saving work for Israel, God created the world with mankind as its ruler, to worship Him functioning as His image, blessing them and the whole earth.

  1. God created all that exists
  2. On the first day, God created it light, separating it from the darkness
  3. On the second day, God separated the waters to form the sky by an expanse so that both heaven and ocean are creatures of God.
  4. On the third day, God caused dry land to appear and vegetation to sprout from the heart to provide food for His creatures.
  5. On the fourth day, God banished total darkness, created the sun, moon, and stars to guide the worship seasons and signal the passage of time.
  6. On the fifth day, God created water dwelling creatures and birds
  7. On the sixth day, God created land dwelling creatures and made mankind
  8. On the seventh day, God contemplated His work, deemed it good, and sanctified the seventh day.

Fall/Punishments-Unbelieving sin of Adam and Eve with their disobedience to God’s command to not eat from the tree of knowledge. As a result of disobedience, God imposed punishment on humankind. As a result God condemned the blame shifting people to travail, the woman in childbirth and subservience to her husband, and the man to travail in work and finally death, and cursed the serpent to be crushed by the women’s seeds .

Proto-evangelium-literally, “the first good news”, evidence of God’s mercy and grace, concern and compassion for Adam and Eve in the provision of coverings for them following the Fall. Important to note that this precedes their expulsion from the garden (Handbook on the Pentateuch, p 43-44).

The question of Gen 6:1-2-“When human beings began to increase in number on the earth and daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw that the daughters of humans were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose.” There are several interpretations to explain the “sons of God” and “daughters of men”. The first, and most popular is that the “sons of God” is a reference to the descendants of Seth, and the “daughters of men” is a reference to the descendants of Cain, referring to the mingling in marriage between the godly Sethite line and the ungodly Cainite line. The second interpretation suggests that the “sons of God” are ancient dynastic rulers, and the “daughters of men” are their royal harems; this interpretation moves toward an ambiguous reference potentially to a group of regal individuals whose existence has not yet been mentioned. The third interpretation suggests that the “sons of God” are angels and the “daughters of men” are humans wherein the sin is cohabitation between supernatural and natural beings (Handbook on the Pentateuch, p 61-63).

Flood-as God inspected the earth, He found it corrupt and filled with violence. God told Noah of His plan for a life destroying flood and of His plan to deliver Noah and his family with a remnant of animal life through an ark Noah should build. God repeated that He would bring a flood upon the earth to destroy all flesh under heaven, but He promised to make a covenant with Noah and his family who would enter the ark. After brining a year-long flood in which all flesh died, Yahweh delivered Noah, his family, and the animals with them .

Noahic Covenant-After the waters receded, Noah waited on God’s command to eventually leave the ark to fulfill the creation blessing to fill the earth. God renewed the creation blessing by granting an everlasting covenant to all flesh promising not to destroy the whole earth by flood ever again. God gave the rainbow as the covenant sign to remind Himself that He would not again make war with the earth by a flood .

Canaanite Curse-Ham broke loyalty with his father Noah when he found Noah drunk with wine, “uncovered”, and reported this to his brothers. Shem and Japheth maintained loyalty by not looking on their father’s nakedness, but proceeding to cover him. Noah cursed Ham’s youngest son Canaan (Handbook on the Pentateuch, p 73-74).

Tower of Babel-captured in Genesis 11, the story of the tower opens with the migration of people from the east to the plain of Shinar. Men rebelliously determine to build a city to prevent their scattering over the earth and to make a name for themselves. The sin of the people does not lie in the desire to build a city, which is a neutral, amoral act; it is the motivation behind the undertaking-the concept of immortality. The Bible reports that God intervenes when learning of their motives and he confuses the language of the people; God’s punishment is directed at both the instrument of sin that made the building project possible, the one language, and at the intention of that sin, to avoid being scattered over the earth (Handbook on the Pentateuch, p 75-76).

Abrahamic Covenant-God leads fearful Abraham to understand and trust His promises, especially of descendants by giving him a covenant with a covenant sign to mark those who may share in covenant fulfillment .

Covenant of Circumcision-God grants Abraham promises of a son by Sarah and innumerable and royal offspring, calling him to live faithfully in covenant, especially giving him the sign of circumcision to mark those who may share in covenant fulfillment. .

The Binding of Isaac-Abraham proves his radical covenant loyalty to God in facing the most stringent of the threats to the promise, God’s command to sacrifice Isaac, Gen 22 .

The Transfer of the Birthright-Jacob in unbelieving faith in the covenant promises, seeks to grasp God’s promise by buying the birthright from Esau who despised his birthright, Gen 25

The Transfer of the Blessing-God provides twin offspring to Isaac, choosing the younger, Jacob to receive the blessing, Isaac offers to bless Esau, scheming against God; Jacob and Rebekah scheme to get the blessing for Jacob against Isaac and Esau. Rebekah sends Jacob to Isaac, he appears before his father and receives blessing. Esau appears before Isaac and receives antiblessing. Rebekah protects Jacob by sending him away, Gen 25 .

Jacob’s Dream at Bethel-Jacob has a dream in which he sees a stairway to heaven with angels ascending and descending on it. God grants the Abrahamic blessing to Jacob who in response vows to worship Yahweh at Bethel giving a tithe tribute offering, Gen 28 .

Joseph’s Dreams-Joseph experiences two dreams in which he and his brothers were binding sheaves of grain when his sheaf rose and stood upright while the others bowed down to it. In the second dream, he retells that the sun, moon, and eleven stars were bowing down to him, Gen 37 .

Pharaoh’s Dreams-Pharaoh experiences two dreams that he asks his wise men and magicians to interpret. In the first dream, Pharaoh was standing by the Nile and seven cows came up out of the river who were sleek and fat and they grazed among the reeds. After them, seven ugly cows came out of the river and stood beside the seven sleek cows. The cows that were ugly ate the seven sleek cows. The second dream was of seven heads of grain, healthy and good growing on a single stalk. After them seven other heads of grain sprouted and they were scorched by the sun and wind. The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven healthy heads of grain. Joseph interpreted through the power of the Lord that there was to be a famine coming, with seven years of plenty, and seven years of famine. Joseph instructed Pharaoh to gather stores for the country during the seven years of plenty so that when the famine came, there might be food, Gen 41.

Pharaoh’s Infanticide Program-God’s blessing on Israel caused fearful Pharaoh to enslave the people. Israel was fruitful and continued to increase while living in Egypt. Pharaoh declared to two Hebrew midwives that when a Hebrew woman gives birth to a son, he must be killed, but that all girls might live. The Hebrew midwives feared God and could not carry out the order; God blessed the midwives and the people of Israel continued to increase. Then Pharaoh gave the order to his people, that “Every Hebrew boy that is born you must throw into the Nile, but let every girl live”, Ex 1.

Burning Bush-Moses was tending the sheep of his father-in-law Jethro at Horeb, the mountain of God. An angel of the Lord appeared to him in flames of fire within a bush. Moses saw that the bush was on fire, but did not burn and went to inspect it further. The Lord spoke to Moses, telling him that he was on holy ground, to remove his sandals, and that He had seen the plight of the people of Israel and that Moses would be the one to deliver them from Egypt. Moses spoke with God concerning Israel’s deliverance, God revealed His name to Moses, provided a sign to him, and Moses claimed he could not speak well and God gives Aaron to assist Moses, Ex 3.

Ten Plagues-Moses and Aaron approach Pharaoh to release Israel from the slavery of Egypt. God has hardened Pharaoh’s heart and he refuses and increase the workload of the Israelites. As a result, God shows His power to Pharaoh and all of Egypt through ten plagues.

  1. The Plague of Blood-the Lord tells Moses to use his staff (that had become a snake), to stretch it over the river and all the water will become blood, even water in vessels and stones, Ex 7
  2. The Plague of Frogs-after seven days, Moses and Aaron return to Pharaoh and say that if Israel is not released, that frogs will come over the Egyptians, Ex 8
  3. The Plague of Gnats-the Lord tells Moses and instructs Aaron to take his staff, strike the ground, and the dust will become gnats that will afflict Egypt, Ex 8
  4. The Plague of Flies-Moses and Aaron visit Pharaoh again, this time to make a distinction between Israel and Egypt in the affliction of the plague. Swarms of flies then only affect the people of Egypt, Ex 8.
  5. The Plague on Livestock-the Lord brings about an affliction on all the livestock of the Egyptians and their cattle, horses, donkeys, camels, sheep and goats all die, Ex 9
  6. The Plague of Boils- the Lord brings about a plague of boils, instructing Moses and Aaron to take handfuls of soot and to toss it into the air in the presence of Pharaoh so that it becomes festering boils that afflict people and animals, Ex 9.
  7. The Plague of Hail-the Lord brings about a plague of hail that destroys crops of the Egyptians, Ex 9
  8. The Plague of Locusts-the Lord brings about a plague of locusts, they are intentionally sent to destroy what was not destroyed during the plague of hail, Ex 10.
  9. The Plague of Darkness-the Lord brings about darkness over the land for three days, Ex 10.
  10. The Plague of the Firstborn-for those who do not follow the Passover ceremony, the firstborn from every household is killed, Ex 11.

Significant Locations in Genesis through Judges

In continuing our wrap-up of Genesis through Judges, we look today at significant places or places were significant events happened through these books. The descriptions are not completely detailed but try to offer a high level overview of some of those events. In the upcoming posts, we will look at the significant events, main themes, significant dates, and a brief background on the secular accounts.

Significant Places

Shechem-the northern region that we know from the book of Joshua that Israel took the land in one of three campaigns. 1. Abraham promised the land. 2. Jacob buys a plot of land; Dinah is raped. 3. Jacob’s sons are tending the sheep here before Joseph finds them in Dothan. 4. The covenant is confirmed during the Conquest. 5. The city is set aside as a levitical city and a city of refuge. 6. Joseph is buried here. 7. The ten tribes reject Rehoboam

Bethel-the central region that we know from the book of Joshua that Israel took the land in one of three campaigns. God grants the Abrahamic blessing to Jacob who in response vows to worship Yahweh at Bethel giving a tithe tribute offering. Means house of God, was originally still called Luz. God spoke to Jacob.

Hebron-significant to the narrative of Abraham and Israel; it was near Hebron that God first promised Abraham that he would inherit the land, it was from this area that he set out to defeat the coalition of kings; it was in Hebron that Abraham acquired his only piece of real estate for the burial of his wife and where the other patriarchs were buried . Sarah died in hebron.

Sodom/Gomorrah-wicked cities that God executes the curse against the Canaanites, delivering only Lot for the sake of Abraham, Gen 18-19 .

Beersheba-location of a treaty between Abraham and Abimelek/Phicol, the commander of the Philistines. Once the treaty had been made, Abraham planted a tamarisk tree and called on the name of the Lord, Gen 21.

Peniel-the location where Jacob wrestled with God; Jacob named the place Peniel, saying “It is because I saw God face to face, and yet my life was spared”, Gen 32.

Marah-location where the Lord tested Israel with bitter water to conform them with the call to careful obedience. The people, fearing death from thirst, grumbled against Moses because he led them for three days into the wilderness to Marah where there was only bitter water. Moses cried out to Yahweh who showed him how to sweet the water. Yahweh made a decree that if they would obey Him, He would not bring any of the disease of Egypt upon the people, Gen 15 .

Desert of Sin-the location where Israel grumbled against Moses because they feared starving to death. Yahweh promised Moses, as a test of their obedience, to rain bread from heaven that they were to gather daily, except on the Sabbath, Gen 16 .

Mt. Sinai-location where the Law was given to Moses, and the Lord made a covenant with the people of Israel.

Kadesh-location at which the Israelites came to and then sent spies to the land of the Amorites; Israel displayed unbelieving fear that led them to fail in covenant loyalty, Deut 1 .

Edom-brother nation, region in which descendants of Esau resided. God fulfills His promise to Abraham to bless Esau by making him a great royal people allied with kings, having separated Esau from Jacob of Canaan, Gen 36-37. As Israel moved to Canaan, the region through which Israel tried to pass through, Edom refused causing Israel to turn away, Num 20 .

Moab-location at which Yahweh made a renewed covenant with Israel through Moses; third location in which God made an important revelation to Israel, Deut 29 .

Peor-Num 25 or Deut 3. Joshua was commissioned. Where Israelites stayed. Israel men had sex with women who caused them to worships Baals of Peor. They had to put to death these people. Phineas killed an Israelite man who brought a midianite into the camp.

Mt. Nebo-Mountain opposite from Jericho; Yahweh allowed Moses to see the land [Canaan] from Mt. Nebo to survey it and then die without entering it since he broke faith with God at Kadesh, Deut 32 .

Jericho-city to which Joshua had spies sent; there they encountered Rahab, Josh 2. The city in which the Israelites are instructed to march around once per day for six days and then march around 7 times on the seventh day, after which the walls of the city will be destroyed. After this, Israel attacks Jericho and they are commanded to completely destroy the city (except for the home/family of Rahab), Josh 5-6.

Ai-city to which Israel is given victory over. Joshua leads the people in an ambush, and Israel is directed to keep the spoils for themselves, Josh 8 .

Gibeon-Fearful of Israel’s defeat at Ai, the Gibeonites deceive Israel, Israel enters into a covenant of protection for the Gibeonites and region of Gibeon without consulting Yahweh. As a result of the oath, their land is protected, however the people become enslaved becoming wood cutters and water men for the tabernacle, Josh 9 .

Hazor-The location of Israel when under oppression from King Jabin during the time of Deborah’s judgeship.

Dan-region from which Samson’s mother was from, Jud 13 .

Summary of the Main People in Genesis through Judges

To finish up our study of the Pentateuch, I would like to provide a list of the key people, places, events, dates and background that are found in the Pentateuch and Joshua and Judges. These are the important items that happen in these books. Hopefully, this brief study will provide a small help in knowing where something occurred in the Bible and be provided a very brief summary of that person, event, or date. Obviously, I cannot be comprehensive with every person like Moses or Adam, as (1) that would be a giant book, (2) there are already many great books out there on them, and (3) this is a brief high level overview. This is just scratching the surface on some of these items and you will probably see that there are many details that are not included for sake of time and space.

Really, the purpose of these posts will be to help bring some stories back to mind and provide any help in the form of study. Today, we will focus on the main characters that are seen from Genesis through Judges.

Adam-the first man, formed from the earth’s dust to be a living being to inhabit the earth that God furnished. God placed mankind in the Garden of Eden to cultivate and keep it, commanding him to eat the fruit of the trees freely, but promising death if he should eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge, Gen 1-5

Eve-the first woman, a completer for Adam made by God; one that corresponded to his nature, taken from his own body to become one with him, his wife. Deceived by the serpent and failing to recognize the goodness of God and His commandment, disobeyed the command and ate of the fruit giving it to Adam as well Gen 2-4

Cain-son of Adam & Eve, twin to Abel, brother to Seth. Cain murdered his brother Abel because of religious envy. God forced Cain to acknowledge his act, driving him from the ground, making him a wandered in the earth though protecting him from blood vengeance Gen 4 . The line through which secular culture is advanced (Handbook on the Pentateuch, p 60-61). Tiller of the fields

Abel-son of Adam & Eve, twin to Cain, brother to Seth. Murdered by his brother Cain. Gen 4. Keeper of the flocks

Seth-son of Adam & Eve, brother to Cain & Abel. It is through the line of Seth that God’s plan of redemption will move, Gen 4-5 (Handbook on the Pentateuch, p 61).

Enoch-father of Methuselah, lived 365 years, walked faithfully with God and then was no more because God took him away, Gen 5

Noah-walked with God, escaped the purifying wrath of God to become the new head of mankind, worshipping in the day of salvation in the gift of covenant under God’s blessing though sin was still at work. After inspecting the corruption and violence in the earth, God told Noah of His plan for a life destroying flood and that He would deliver Noah and his family with a remnant of animal life. Noah was directed by God to build an ark to carry them through the flood. Gen 6-9

Shem-son of Noah, populated the earth following the Flood. Sons of Shem included the descendants of Aram and Arphaxad, the father of all the sons of Eber (the line through which the blessing flowed); lived in the eastern hill country, Gen 10-11

Ham-son of Noah, populated the earth following the Flood. Ham broke loyalty with his father Noah when Noah became drunk, and then cursed Ham’s son Canaan. Sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan from whom the lands of Arabia, including the Assyrians, Africa, and Canaan were settled, Gen 10-11

Japheth-son of Noah, populated the earth following the Flood. Sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras and were the peoples who spread into the maritime territories of the earth, Gen 10-11

Abraham-a man of faith, receives God’s covenant promises and models for his heirs covenant loyalty to God in the face of threats to the fulfillment of the promises; fearful Abraham, seeks to aid God’s promises by fathering a son through Hagar causing division in the family. God grants Abraham a son through his wife Sarah and she delivers Isaac, the line through which God will fulfill his promise of multitudes of offspring, Gen 11-25

Sarah-Abraham’s wife; despite her unbelief in God’s provision of a child, she gives birth to a son, Gen 11-25

Lot-relative of Abraham, Lot fathers nations, as does Abraham, but through the breach of family to nations who themselves will breach family loyalty, Gen 13, 18-19

Hagar-Sarah’s maid, mother of Ishmael, fathered by Abraham, Gen 16

Ishmael-son of Hagar and Abraham; under God’s blessing, becomes a nation with twelve tribes, fulfilling God’s promise that he would live in defiance of all his relatives, Gen 16, 21

Abimelech-Philistine king whom God controls his actions in order to protect Abraham, Gen 20 Abraham lied to him that sarah was his sister and not his wife. Abimelech spoke to God and God spared him. Abimelech gave Abraham all sorts of servants and gifts. He was healed and his wife was able to have children as Abraham prayed for him. Covenant with Abraham over a well that Abraham dug and gave 7 lambs for

Isaac-son of Abraham and Sarah; the line through which God will fulfill His promise of multitudes of offspring. In contrast to Abraham, Isaac fails to lead his sons to respect God’s gift of the blessing. God provides Isaac with twin offspring and Isaac chooses to Jacob, the younger to receive the blessing. The Lord calls Isaac to the land of Canaan, renewing the Abrahamic promises to bless him and make him a blessing to all the earth because of Abraham’s obedience, though Isaac endangered the family by following the bad example of Abraham (lying about her being his sister) at Gerar, Gen 25- God fulfills His plan of blessing Isaac even through the unbelief and disobedience of the family.

Rebekah-wife of Isaac; Rebekah schemes with Jacob to get the blessing for Jacob against Isaac and Esau. Was also barren but Isaac prayed and she gave birth, she was 60 years old when she gave birth.

Jacob-son of Isaac and Rebekah, younger brother of Esau, husband of Rachel and Leah. Jacob exhibits unbelieving faith in the covenant promises, and seeks to grasp God’s promise by buying the birthright from Esau who despised his birthright. Jacob’s sin fulfills the plan of God to bless Jacob, but requires the discipline of flight to protect himself from his wronged brother, but also to find a proper wife.

Esau-son of Isaac and Rebekah, older brother of Jacob. Esau despised and sold his birthright to his younger brother Jacob. Also called Edom because of the red stew.

Laban-uncle of Jacob, father of Rachel and Leah. Laban allowed Jacob to live with him in Paddan Aram, for Jacob’s compensation for working for him, Laban offered his daughter Rachel in marriage. Laban deceived Jacob and gave him Leah as wife first because she was the older daughter. Jacob loved Rachel however and worked for Laban another 7 years so that he might make Rachel his wife. After Jacob’s family increases, Laban’s attitude toward Jacob changes—Jacob’s household and flocks increase, he requests leave, flees from Laban, who then pursues him.

Rachel-wife of Jacob; mother of Joseph and Benjamin. Barren; stole Labans idols.

Leah-wife of Jacob; mother of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah

Reuben-firstborn of Jacob and Leah; disqualified himself from leadership of the family by committing incest and slept with Jacob’s concubine Bilhah Gen 35

Simeon-second son of Jacob and Leah; sought revenge for Dinah’s rape by killing every male in the city in which they lived

Levi-third son of Jacob and Leah; sought revenge for Dinah’s rape by killing every male in the city in which they lived

Judah-fourth son of Jacob and Leah

Joseph-first son of Jacob and Rachel; Jacob’s favorite son and choice to manage the family. Joseph experiences two dreams that indicate that he will lead their family, inciting jealousy in his 11 brothers. They sell him into slavery, telling Jacob that he is dead. Joseph thrives in Egypt, works in the household of Potiphar, but is then put into prison after claims that he seduced Potiphar’s wife. Joseph through the power of the Lord tells the meanings behind dreams of fellow prisoners, and after two years is connected to Pharaoh to interpret his dreams. Pharaoh puts Joseph in charge of Egypt. During famine, Joseph has the opportunity to reconcile with his brothers and father who visit Egypt to purchase grain for their family, Gen 37-50.

Benjamin-second son of Jacob and Rachel; God completes His promise to Jacob by giving him twelve sons, ending with Benjamin’s birth and the death of Rachel, Gen 35.

Dinah-daughter of Jacob and Leah; experienced rape at the hand of Shechem a Hivite, who then requested that Dinah become his wife. Shechem and his father Hamor spoke to Jacob and his sons about this request and agreed that Dinah might be given to Shechem in marriage if the men of the region become circumcised. The men agreed, and were circumcised, three days after, Simeon and Levi sought revenge for the rape of their sister and killed all the males in the region Gen 34

Tamar-daughter-in-law of Judah; Tamar was married to Judah’s son Er, who was wicked in the sight of the Lord and was killed. Tamar became pregnant through her father-in-law when he refused to give his other son Shelah to her as husband, Gen 38.

Potiphar-when Joseph was sold into slavery, Potiphar purchased Joseph from the Ishmaelites. Joseph was blessed by the Lord and Potiphar saw this, and elevated him to second in command of his household, Gen 39.

The Cupbearer-offended Pharaoh and was put into the same prison as Joseph; Joseph was assigned to attend to the cupbearer. The Cupbearer experienced a dream in which a vine grew in front of him, and it grew three branches. On the vine, the branches grew into clusters of grapes which he squeezed into the cup of Pharaoh. Joseph interpreted his dream through the power of the Lord to mean that in three days, the Cupbearer would be restored to his prior position. Once Joseph interpreted the dream, he asked that the Cupbearer remember him to Pharaoh so that he might be released from prison. Just as Joseph had interpreted the dream, so it came to be; however the Cupbearer did not remember him to Pharaoh, Gen 40.

The Baker-offended Pharaoh and was put into the same prison as Joseph; Joseph was assigned to attend to the baker. The Baker experienced a dream in which three baskets of bread were on his head, and on the top basket, all types of baked goods were there for Pharaoh, but the birds were eating the bread out of the basket. Joseph interpreted his dream through the power of the Lord to mean that in three days, the Baker would be killed by Pharaoh. Just as Joseph had interpreted the dream, so it came to be, Gen 40.

Manasseh-firstborn son of Joseph, Gen 48

Ephraim-second son of Joseph; received blessing from Jacob (Israel) even though he was the younger son, Gen 48.

Moses-a Levite through whom which God uses to deliver Israel. God uses many mighty signs and wonders, showing that He is God, causing Moses to trust in Him.

Miriam-sister of Moses, she hid among the reeds to watch what would happen to the papyrus basket that Moses was placed in as an infant. Miriam watched as the basket floated to Pharaoh’s daughter and offered to provide her with a wet nurse (her mother), Ex 2.

Pharaoh’s daughter-bathing in the Nile, found the papyrus basket in which the infant Moses was floating. Pharaoh’s daughter took Moses and he became her son, Ex 2.

Jethro-Moses’ father-in-law, a Midianite priest, Zipporah is daughter

Aaron-brother of Moses, mouthpiece of Moses through which Israel is delivered.

Joshua-Moses successor as leader of Israel, Josh 1-18

Bezalel-chief craftsman and overseer (along with Oholiab) of the construction/building of the Tabernacle, Ex 31, 33

Nadab-son of Aaron, attempted to worship Yahweh by his own device (along with Abihu) by offering unauthorized fire before the Lord contrary to His command and was destroyed by God with holy fire from the sanctuary, Lev 10

Abihu-son of Aaron, attempted to worship Yahweh by his own device (along with Nadab) by offering unauthorized fire before the Lord contrary to His command and was destroyed by God with holy fire from the sanctuary, Lev 10

Caleb-one of the twelve spies sent into Canaan, from the tribe of Judah. Upon the spies’ return from their exploration, contrary to the other 11 spies, Caleb encouraged Israel to invade that they might overcome the land (the other spies brought back fruit telling that the land was good, but were intimidated by the inhabitants and well fortified cities), Num 13. Caleb, for his faith in Yahweh’s provision, was spared during a plague and was allowed to enter Canaan, Deut 1

Korah-along with Dathan and Abiram led Israel to rebel against Moses and Aaron, but Yahweh vindicated their leadership by great judgments against them and all Israel. Moses warned them that Yahweh would show the next day who should lead Israel, who was holy, by choosing the censer of the man He honored. Moses rebuked Korah for presumption beyond the good gifts of God to Levi, seeking the priesthood also. Moses interceded with Yahweh against them, commanding them to be present the next day bringing a fire pan and censer, which they did along with 250 other community leaders. Yahweh commanded Moses, Aaron, and Israel to separate themselves as a result of Moses’ intercession. The power of the Lord was shown then who should leave Israel when the earth was opened and swallowed alive Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, along with the 250 men and their households validating Moses’ leadership, Num 16

Balak-king of Moab, fearing Israel, sent for Balaam, God’s prophet to curse Israel. Balaam sternly warned by Yahweh, reminded Balak that he could speak only what Yahweh had said, Num 22-24

Balaam-a prophet, hired by Balak to curse Israel; Balaam prophetically proclaimed Yahweh’s blessing on Israel. The Balaam narrative shows that God had begun to fulfill His promise to Abraham and that his seed had become a “great nation”. It showed that God was about to fulfill His promise to give Abraham’s seed the land. The narrative also shows that the curses of the nations could not thwart God’s promise to bless the nation of Israel, Num 22-24

Rahab-prostitute of Jericho who hid spies sent from Israel and lied to the king, urging him to send after them to the Jordan, leaving him to think they had fled. Rahab hid the spies under the flax on the room. Knowledge of God and all that He had done for Israel had come to Rahab, her response showed her faithfulness to God and she requested that God honor her and her family when Israel came to take Jericho. The spies gave an oath and escaped via a cord through a window; it was through the sign of the cord that Israel would know to not destroy Rahab’s house, Josh 2

Achan-upon the defeat of Jericho, Israel was instructed by the Lord to keep away from all “devoted things” and that the silver, gold, bronze, and iron from the city were to be put into the Lord’s treasury. Achan brought about Yahweh’s wrath against the people when he stole some of the things from Jericho, Josh 7

Eleazar-son of Aaron, priest during the time of Joshua’s leadership of Israel, Josh 14

Deborah-prophetess, judged Israel in Ephraim to settle disputes of the Israelites; worked alongside Barak, Jud 4

Barak-Recipient of the Lord’s command through Deborah to take 10,000 men of Naphtali and Zebulun to Mt. Tabor to defeat Sisera’s army at Kishon. Barak displayed cowardice and refused to carry out the Lord’s command unless Deborah would go with him. Deborah agreed to go, however Barak lost honor because Yahweh would kill Sisera by the hands of a woman (Jael), Jud 4

Gideon-because of Israel’s rebellion, they were given in to the hands of the Midianites. Yahweh commission Gideon to deliver Israel, by returning to Yahweh worship in Ophrah. Upon being commissioned by God, Gideon requests that a sign be performed to confirm that he was hearing from God. Gideon prepared unleavened bread and boiled goat that were miraculously consumed in fire on a rock. Gideon built an altar to the Lord at that place and named it Ophrah, Jud 6 (Judges Notes, p 17). Israel battles against Midian and Gideon displays wavering faith in God’s deliverance by asking for additional signs (a dewy fleece on dry ground and the next day a dry fleece on dewy ground). God uses a dream to reveal to Gideon that He will deliver Israel, Jud 6-7

Jephthah-was given the direct promise of Yahweh that victory will come over the Ammonites, but he will try to secure the victory by a foolish and unnecessary oath. The judgeship of Jephthat is characterized by ignorance and negligence of divine things and his manipulation of Yahweh, Jud 10-11

Samson-The judgeship of Samson is driven by his appetites, negligent of his Nazirite vow, selfish and uncaring about the face of his people, Jud 12-16.

Delilah-the person responsible for the downfall of Samson’s strength. Delilah seduced Samson to tell her the secret sources of his strength for a bag of silver from the Philistines, Jud 16

Faith in Genesis

One of the main themes throughout the Bible is that of faith. It is key to our salvation in Christ Jesus. Our faith is something that is almost constantly under attack. We are faced with trials, tribulations, struggles and doubts. Sometimes we prevail. Sometimes we fail. At times in our lives, we will be called to take a leap of faith. we do not know where we are going or what we will do, but we know that God the Father is calling us to something more. Just like Indiana Jones had to take the “leap of faith” to get to the Holy Grail, so we will be faced with similar situations.

The book of Genesis is a story of beginnings. The world had its beginning, sin was introduced into this world, mankind almost completely destroyed and began again, Abraham had his beginning, as did Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph. Through this line the nation of Israel had its beginning. Almost every page in the book of beginnings displays the theme of faith. A person is called to faith. A person faith is tested. Faith in the Almighty is kept or a lack of faith is displayed. Faith is also a beginning. We begin our life with Christ by faith in Him and His finished work for us. Faith is not easy as Genesis shows, but even with the patriarchs are faithless, God is always faithful. Genesis has many storylines, but faith is one of the overarching themes. The faith of the people and the faithfulness of God.

This post is the main message of Genesis in this writers eyes and a high level summary outline of Genesis. I will also look at the faith of one of the patriarchs, how they lived a life of faith and finally how modern believers can learn from this life of faith.


  1. The main message of Genesis
    1. The book of Genesis displays creation and God’s covenant with the patriarchs to develop faith in His chosen people.
  2. Outline of Genesis
    1. The creation of the world and history of the earliest ages (chs. 1-11).
      1. God establishes His existence and His creation of all things (chs. 1-2).
      2. Mankind falls into sin and the progression throughout creation (chs. 3-5).
      3. God judges the world and His covenant with the lone faithful man named Noah (chs. 6-11).
    2. God makes covenants of promise with the chosen patriarchal fathers of faith (chs. 11-50).
      1. God establishes a covenant with Abraham and his journey of faith (chs. 11-25).
      2. God’s covenant is confirmed with Isaac and Jacob (chs. 25-36).
      3. The covenant of God is displayed through the life of Joseph for the future protection of the chosen people (chs. 37-50).
  1. How did Joseph model faith?

Joseph modeled faith even in facing reoccurring adversity, he did not compromise his integrity or faith in God. No matter what position he was in, he did not lose heart but instead willingly submitted and did all that was asked of him to be faithful, honoring, and glorifying to God. Through all the struggles and tribulations of Joseph’s life, when life was the bleakest, he continually trusted and had faith that God would not only work in those circumstances, but work them out for good. When others would have given up, Joseph was patient and endured the hardships. Joseph’s patient endurance through the struggles modeled faith because he focused on God’s big picture and trusted in God’s promises. He knew that there was a reason for these hardships and God was using him for a greater purpose to provide for his family, but more importantly ensure the protection for future generations of God’s people.

  1. How does the narrative of Joseph apply to the 21st century believer?

As the modern believer experiences and is faced with their own difficult hardships and circumstances, the story of Joseph is one that can be looked to for encouragement. His life was filled with trials and tribulations as it seemed it was one thing after another; the modern believer can look to the story of Joseph as an example of perseverance, endurance, patience, trust and faith. Honoring God, Joseph lived out his faith and refused to give in to the depression of his circumstances or succumbing to the temptations of the flesh. The story of Joseph translates through the centuries because when everything seems to be going wrong, Joseph displays a hope and faith that never submits to despair. His story reminds all of us that we must hold on to the promises of God, because God can use that for good to do something beyond our understanding. Joseph’s story shows that God will walk with us through the darkest valleys of life as we trust and remain faithful to Him.

Stand firm on Truth

Over the past several months, there have been several verses that have become very important to me. They have been going through my mind when things seemed grim. They were great reminders of hope. They were truths that I could stand on. As the days mounted and trials persisted, more verses kept coming. What was amazing was and is that they became hidden in my heart. They were my treasures. It was a way to focus on who is in control. It wasn’t about saying these ritualistically or like a mantra, but the power came from who they were talking about. It wasn’t faith in the words, but faith in what the words pointed to. I can honestly say that when we did discuss our fears and anxieties with God, that He did bless us with a peace and continues to do so.

We don’t know where this journey is taking us or for how long we will be on it, but we do know there is hope. We do know there is peace available and has already been given. We do know that this isn’t our home, this isn’t where we belong. We know that this journey through the wilderness is just a visit. Maybe this visit lasts until our mortal lives are over, but they will end. God doesn’t guarantee us a good life or an easy life, in fact He tells us quite the opposite that there will be pain and hurt. There will be times of trial and torment. But there is hope, there is always hope to cling to.

That is what these verses speak to for us. That is what we cling to, hope and faith in something beyond what we can see. These few verses are just a small sampling of the hope God gives us. There are so many more verses and reminders He gives us, but during this time, these stand out. Just like when we keep being reminded of the same lessons during these trying times the past few months, so have these verses and some others kept coming to our minds. In what may seem like a very random time, we will be reminded of a very important lesson or a verse and a smile will come on our face for God’s reminders.

We share these to praise the Lord for the hope, reminders and lessons He keeps sharing with us. We praise the Lord for the truths and the power of the Gospel.

Philippians 4:13 – I can do all things through him who gives me strength

Philippians 4:6-7 – Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. (7) And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus

Hebrews 11:1 – Now faith is confidence in what we hope for and assurance about what we do not see

Ephesians 3:20 – Now to him who is able to do immeasurably more than all we ask or imagine, according to his power that is at work within us

Romans 8:25-26 – But if we hope for what we do not yet have, we wait for it patiently. (26) In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness. We do not know what we ought to pray for, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us through wordless groans.

Genesis 50:20 – You intended to harm me, but intended it for good…

Joshua 1:9 – Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid; do not be discouraged, for the Lord your God will be with you wherever you go.

James 1:3-6 – because you know that the testing of your faith produces perseverance. (4) Let perseverance finish its work so that you may be mature and complete, not lacking anything. (5)If any of you lacks wisdom, you should ask God, who gives generously to all without finding fault, and it will be given to you. (6) But when you ask, you must believe and not doubt, because the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea, blown and tossed by the wind.

Psalms 56:10-11 – In God, whose word i praise, in the Lord, whose word i praise – (11) in God I trust and am not afraid…

Proverbs 3:5-6 – Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding; (6) in all your ways submit to him, and he will make your paths straight.

Luke 22:44 – And being in anguish, he (Jesus) prayed more earnestly…

Luke 18:1 – Then Jesus told his disciples a parable to show them that they should always pray and not give up. From the Parable of the persistent widow

Luke 18:27 – Jesus replied, “What is impossible with man is possible with God.”

Matthew 11:28-30 – “Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. (29) Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. (30) For my yoke is easy and my burden is light.”

2 Corinthians 12:9-10 – But he said to me, “My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.” Therefore, I will boast all the more gladly about my weaknesses, so that Christ’s power may rest on me. (10)… For when I am weak, then I am strong.

Mark 11:24 – Therefore I tell you, whatever you ask for in prayer, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours.

Where we will start

It is interesting and probably appropriate that I start off this section of the blog with Genesis. As we go through this blog I felt it would be nice to share what I am reading during my quiet time and what really sticks with me.
A few weeks ago I was searching for something to read during my quiet time that I hadn’t read in a while. I have spent a lot of time in the New Testament recently, specifically the Gospels, to look back at the life of Christ and trying to read it with new eyes. Trying to just examine how He lived and applying that to my own life. It is amazing how His life was not about comfort or things we find important. Yet all too often I seek my comfort and move away from uncomfortable situations. I make idols out of things that make me feel empty and leave me unsatisfied. Christ, the perfect example, shows me how to live and how it still applies to this day. As He put me here in this place, at this time, at this moment, for His reason I must look to Him to see how to actually move forward.
So, back to the point of this particular writing, I start with Genesis 1. It is the book of beginnings and so what better way than to start this section of the blog off with it. It is funny how sometimes it seems God is using the same themes or stories during a period of our lives. It could be the story of Joseph that keeps getting mentioned or a certain theme, like that of forgiveness that just keeps coming up on a very regular basis. Obviously I feel that God is trying to teach me something or remind me of something I need to work on or apply for a particular time in my life. This in all honesty can be frustrating at times because I don’t want to learn about patience again. But, that is what has led me back to Genesis.
A couple of months ago my wife and I started going through some trials with her health and the health of loved ones. During that time, the story of Joseph was a prominent theme. His story was amazing and it was amazing how God used his story for our own time of hurt and pain.
As we started reading some different books, the stories of Abraham and Jacob came up. Once we thought we got away from those stories, God would remind us of them during church or by bringing it up in a separate book or way. So this is how we get to Genesis. I feel God is really leading me to read it right now and be reminded of how it all began, His greatness and how He used some common people that struggled with sin much like I do, to do great and uncommon things. I think also it is to remind me of His faithfulness and how He is the Great Provider.
So essentially this is me adding something to the scope of this blog. As I have gone through the chapters, God has pointed out some really important things that I feel like sharing. Again, I am by no means a Bible scholar or claim to know even 10% of the depths of God’s Word. This is just me sharing what is on my mind and why it stuck out to me at this point and time. Are we going to cover every single thing? No, by no means. I hope that it will just be a theme or certain subject that really stuck with me. Are there times when it could be two or three different things? Of course, there is so much good stuff. Or more accurately great stuff to talk about.